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Chapter 11 Volume 3 61-80

Civil War 凯撒 7883Words 2018-03-21
61.Because they came from a rich family, they brought a lot of luggage, and a large number of followers and animals followed, and they were considered to be very brave and highly respected by Caesar. In addition, this incident was very novel and out of common sense. Besides, Pompey led them in a circle around the fortifications he heard, showing off.Because before this incident.Neither infantry nor cavalry ever ran from Caesar to Pompey, though almost every day there was a flight from Pompey to Caesar, especially from Igenrus and Aetoli. Those brought by Asia, and those from the areas now under Caesar's occupation, were fleeing in droves.However, the two brothers really knew everything about the situation, such as where the siege was not completed, or what seemed to be lacking in the eyes of people with military experience, such as time arrangements, distances between places, As well as the different temperaments and motivations of the supervisors, the laziness and laziness of the sentry posts, etc., they all reported to Pompey one by one.

62.As we have already said, Pompey originally planned to make a breakthrough, and after learning about this situation, he ordered his subordinates to make a protective shield for his helmet with wicker, and collected materials for the barrier.When these things were ready, he ordered a great number of hussars and crossbowmen to be brought aboard rowboats and clippers at night with all these supplies.About midnight he took with him sixty battalions drawn from the larger camps and fortifications, and proceeded to that part of our trenches extending as far as the sea, furthest from Caesar's camp.He sent there also the ships already mentioned, loaded with supplies and light troops, along with his ships of war at Dyrrakium.And issued orders stating what he wanted everyone to do.Caesar stationed at those trenches his treasurer, Lentulus Marcellinus, with the Ninth Legion, and, as his health was not very good, Caesar sent Hervius Postumus Assist him there.

63.There, facing the enemy, was a ditch fifteen feet wide and a rampart ten feet high, the earthworks of which were also ten feet wide.Six hundred feet away from it.There was another fortification, facing in the other direction, with lower barriers.Because a few days ago, Caesar was afraid that our army would be besieged by the enemy fleet, so he built this double barrier here.But because the circle surrounded by his siege fortifications is seventeen miles long, the project is huge, and he is tired of working continuously every day, so he has not had time to complete it, facing the sea, and connecting the horizontal lines of these two fortifications Barriers are not completed.Pompey was well aware of these facts, which had been told to him by the fleeing Allobrogs, and this was to the great disadvantage of our army.While the two battalions of the Ninth Legion were on duty, Pompey's army suddenly arrived at daybreak. At the same time, the soldiers on board threw spears on the outer ramparts and filled the trenches with earth. Raise the ladder, use all kinds of crossbows and arrow stones to intimidate our soldiers guarding the inner fortifications, and throw a large number of arrows and spears at them in all directions.The only weapons of our army are stones, but when throwing them, most of the opponents have the wicker protective cover on the helmet to cover them.When our army was under heavy pressure on all sides, and it was very difficult to hold our position, the gap in the defense mentioned above was revealed, and Pompey's army landed in the unfinished place between the two ramparts. Attack the soldiers on both sides of our army from behind, drive them out of the two fortifications, and force them to run away.

64.On receiving reports of this sudden attack, Marcellinus sent several battalions from his camp to support our discomfited army, and when they went up, they saw them fleeing, and instead of reassuring them by their presence, Come down, even I can't stand the onslaught of the enemy.Therefore, every time additional reinforcements were sent, they were frightened by the fleeing of the defeated soldiers, which increased the terror and danger.The retreat was also hindered by too many people.A flag bearer of the eagle flag, who was severely injured in this battle, was exhausted. When he saw our cavalry, he shouted: "This eagle flag has been carefully protected for many years in my life. Now that I am dying, I will return it to Caesar with the same fidelity. I beg, don't let anything happen to the honor of the army, which has never happened in Caesar's army! Take it back intact Give it to him." Because of this chance, the eagle banner was preserved, although all the centurions of the first battalion were killed, except the former centurions of the main force.

65.Pompey's army, after having massacred our army, approached the camp of Marklinus, and caused no small consternation in the remaining camps.Marcus Antony, who was in the adjacent fortifications, had received word, and could now be seen running down the heights with a dozen battalions.His coming, holding back Pompey's army, roused ours, and revived them from their extreme terror.A short time later, Caesar, learning of this by the smoke that passed from fort after fort, as was his old custom, also came to the place with battalions drawn from his strongholds.When he realized the loss he had suffered, he saw that Pompey had broken out of the siege, and was building a camp near the sea, that he might have free hay, and a passage to his fleet. At that time, Caesar thought that the original plan could no longer be persisted anyway, so he simply changed his strategy and ordered his troops to build a camp near Pompey.

66.When the fortification of this camp was completed, Caesar's scouts saw several battalions of the enemy, perhaps a full legion, behind the woods, being led towards the old camp.The situation in that camp is like this: in the past few days.Caesar's ninth legion had camped on this spot since they had resisted Pompey's forces and, as has been said, fortified them.The camp was right next to a forest, no more than three hundred paces from the sea.Later Caesar, for some reason, changed his plans, removed his camp, and moved a little away from the place.A few days later Pompey took the same camp, and, as he wished to place several legions there, he abandoned the inner ramparts, and built a larger circle.The smaller camp was thus enclosed in the midst of a larger camp, and became an inner fort or acropolis of it.At the same time, at the left corner of the camp, he built a fortification leading to the river, about 400 steps long, so that his men could get water more conveniently without worrying about danger.However, for some insignificant reasons, he changed his plans and left the place, so that for many days the camp remained empty, and the fortifications remained intact.

67.The scouts reported to Caesar that the banners of the legion had been transferred there, and they assured him that this had also been seen from several of the higher fortresses.This place was about five hundred paces from Pompey's new camp.Caesar, eager to make up for the losses of the day, and hoping to crush the legion, left two battalions at work, pretending to be still building up the fortifications, while he himself led the rest in the utmost secrecy, planning to Thirty-three battalions, including the Ninth Legion, which had lost many of its centurions and whose ranks were much thinner, marched in double file from a side road to Pompey's legion and the small camp.His original intention was not defeated, and he was there before Pompey was aware of it. Although the camp was very strong fortified, after an attack from the left-on this side of Caesar himself, Pompey Pei's troops were driven from the ramparts.The gate of the camp was blocked by a fence studded with iron nails.Fighting here for a while, our army tried to force it in, while the other guarded his camp, Titus Pulio, whom we mentioned before, because of his activities Gaius Antony's army was betrayed The man who was leading the defense of the place with great valor.Even so, our soldiers gained the upper hand by their steadfastness, felled the fence, broke first into the camp, and then into the small camp that surrounded the camp as a fortress, and the defeated legion, Just retreat there, where our army killed everyone who was still fighting.

68.But fate is in any.In all things, it can play a great role, especially in war, it only needs a slight swing, and it will make great changes in things.That's when it happened.Caesar's camp on the left, ignorant of the terrain, ran along the fortification which we have already mentioned leading from the camp to the river, thinking that this was the fortification of the camp.When they found that they were only passages between the camp and the river, they began to destroy the fortifications and cross over, and no one resisted them at this time.All the cavalry of our army followed behind these battalions.

69.By this time, after a considerable time, word had reached Pompey that he had drawn five legions from the fortifications, and brought them to the rescue of his men.At the same time, his cavalry also rushed to our cavalry, and his spread out was already visible to our troops occupying the camp there. Immediately, everything changed.Pompey's corps, encouraged by the prospect of relief soon, attempted to resist near the rear camp gate, and then took the offensive, advancing upon our army.Caesar's cavalry began to flee, fearing that it would be difficult to get out, as they had crawled up a narrow path through the fortifications.The right wing, which had been cut off from the left wing, saw the panic among the cavalry, and in order to avoid being trapped in the fortifications, it also began to withdraw from a section of the barrier that it had demolished.Many of these people were afraid of being trapped in this extremely narrow place, so they jumped from the ten-foot high wall into the trench by themselves.While those in front are being trampled upon, the rest try to step out of their bodies for safety and escape.The soldiers on the left wing saw Pompey coming from the ramparts and saw his own people running away. They were afraid that there would be enemies on both sides, and that they would be confined in this narrow place. exit on the way.There was confusion, panic, and running everywhere, so that even when Caesar snatched the banner from the fleeing ones and ordered them to stop, some were still running at full gallop.Some people even lost their company flags because of fear, and no one stopped.

70.The reason for alleviating this catastrophe and preventing our army from being wiped out is the pet's fear of ambush.According to my guess, it is precisely because he saw his subordinates running out of the camp not long ago, and now what happened suddenly was completely unexpected to him, so for a long time, he did not dare to advance to the place where the fortifications were located. Come.His cavalry were hampered by the narrowness of the roads, especially since they were occupied by Caesar's troops.Insignificant little things, thus causing consequences that are very important to both parties.When Pompey's camp had been breached, the fortification leading from it to the river prevented Caesar's almost secure victory; army security.

71.In two battles that day, Caesar lost nine hundred and sixty warriors, as well as some notable Roman knights—a senator's son Gaius Tuticanus of Pracentia, a Gaul. Phreginas, Olus Graninus of Putioli, Marcus Sacrativier of Capua-commander and centurion of the Thirty-two legions, but of these, Most of them were not injured at all, but were trampled to death by their accomplices in the trenches, on the siege fortifications and on the river bank while fleeing in panic.Thirty-two company flags were also lost.In the midst of this battle Pompey accepted the title of "Impelato," which he retained and allowed to be called, but never used it often in his letters, nor in his own school. Wei's ax stick is decorated with a wreath.Labienus asked Pompey to order the captives to be handed over to him, and then he pulled them all out, obviously for the purpose of showing off, in order to gain some confidence for himself as a defector who claimed that these people " Brothers," asked them in the most insolent tone: Is it not customary for veterans to run away and kill them all in front of everyone. 72.As a result of these successes, Pompey's side greatly increased their confidence and energy. Instead of thinking about how to fight the war, they believed that they had won the victory.They did not expect that the reason for their victory was that our army was too small in number and the terrain was unfavorable.And because they were the first to rush into the enemy's camp, their position was narrow, they were threatened by both inside and outside, and the troops were divided into two halves, so they could not support each other; We defeated us in a formal positional battle. Our army caused losses to ourselves due to the crowding and the narrow space.In the end, it did not occur to them that accidents may happen to everyone in war, often for trivial reasons, such as some unfounded suspicions, a sudden false alarm, or a This kind of religious taboo will often lead to great disasters, not to mention the failure of the army due to the mistakes of the commander and the commander.However, as if this victory was really won by courage, and fate would not change any more, they spread the news of this day's victory everywhere by word of mouth and letters. 73.When Caesar's original plan was thwarted, he considered that he had to change his whole plan of battle.He therefore withdrew all the defenders at the same time, abandoned the siege, and gathered all his troops together.And make a speech to the soldiers, encouraging them not to take what happened to their hearts, to be sullen, and not to be frightened by these things, so as to equate one failure - and a small one - with many successes .They should have thanked fate, they recovered Italy without loss, they pacified the two Spains with the bravest people and the most cunning and experienced generals, they took the neighboring provinces rich in grain into their hands, and finally , and they should remember how fortunate it was that all of them had been transported here safely through the hostile fleet that filled not only the harbour, but the whole coast.If not everything goes smoothly, they must use their hard work to help fate.The responsibility for their losses can be attributed to anyone, but he, Caesar, cannot be blamed. He gave them a favorable terrain, he occupied the enemy's camp, he drove and crushed the enemy in battle, but whether it was their own confusion, or a moment of carelessness, or even The change of fate has given away such a victory that has been readily obtained and is in their hands. They must all work hard to make up for the loss they have suffered with their bravery.If this can be done, bad things will turn into good things just like in Gergovia, and even those who were afraid of fighting before will automatically stand up to fight. 74.After speaking these words, he publicly reprimanded some company flag guards and demoted them to the ranks.At this time, the whole army was overwhelmed by the great grief caused by the disastrous defeat and the eager expectation of revenge, so that no one waited for the order of the legion commander or the centurion, and everyone automatically took on the heavier burden than usual. Labor, as a punishment for oneself, the passion to fight boiled in everyone's heart, and even some higher-ranking personnel thought about it and believed that they should fight on the spot.On the other hand, Caesar had not enough confidence in his terrified troops to think that there should be a respite for their recovery, and, having abandoned his fortifications, he feared very much for his Food will not be enough. 75.Therefore, after only a short delay, just long enough to attend to the sick and wounded, he quietly drew all the trains out of the camp at dusk, and set off on their way to Apollonia, forbidding them Stop to rest, and send a legion to protect them.Having arranged these things, he left the two legions in the camp, and sent the rest of the legions to come out by the gates at the fourth watch, and follow the same road.It was only after a short period of time that he gave the order to call out the battalion, so that, without departing from the custom in the army, his departure would be known as late as possible.Then he set off at once, and followed the army, and was soon out of sight of the camp.Pompey, on the other hand, when he learned of his plan, was afraid of delaying the pursuit, and did not delay for a moment. His purpose was the same, to catch up with them when they were packed and in a hurry on the march.He led his army out of the camp, and sent cavalry ahead to harass the rear.But he could not catch up with our army, because Caesar was lightly armed and had driven a long way.When they reached the steep banks of the Gnussus, the cavalry caught up, and provoking our rear to fight, held them back.Caesar used his cavalry to fend off the enemy.Moreover, the cavalry also has 400 lightly equipped elite soldiers under the flag.They were very victorious, and in this clash of cavalry drove all their opponents back, killed many, and retreated unscathed to the ranks of the army. 76.Caesar having completed all the day's journey, and taking his army across the Gnusus, stopped in his old camp facing the Asparagium, and put All his personnel were closed in the fortifications of the camp, and he ordered the cavalry he sent out in advance to pretend to be herdsmen to sneak back from the back camp gate immediately.Pompey, too, stopped at his old camp on the Asparagium River after completing the whole day.His men had nothing to do, as the original fortifications were still intact, and some went long distances to gather wood and fodder; Over there, now that they think they are not far from the original camp anyway, they all want to go back to get their luggage, put their weapons in the tent, and leave the barrier.Caesar foresaw that these circumstances would hinder their pursuit, and about noon he gave the order to break out of the camp and lead the army out of the camp, and traveled twice that day, advancing from that place about eight miles.Pompey could not do the same, since his men had dispersed. 77.The next day, Caesar also sent his train ahead at dusk.He himself set out on the fourth watch, so that, if something should happen, when it was necessary to fight, he would be able to meet the unexpected with a light force.He did the same for the next few days.The result of adopting this method was that, despite the deep river and the difficult road, he suffered little loss.Pompey was delayed for a day on the first day, and in the next few days pursued with hasty marches, anxious to catch up with the enemy troops ahead.But it was all in vain. On the fourth day, he realized that something else must be done, and he stopped the chase. 78.At this time, Caesar wanted to settle the wounded, distribute military losses, encourage the alliance, and leave garrisons for some towns.It is necessary to go to Apollonia.But the time he spent on these things happened to be as much as he could squeeze out from a busy man like himself. He was worried that Domitius would be caught off guard by Pompey's sudden arrival, so he went as fast as possible. The speed and the most urgent mood rushed to him.By this time Caesar had arranged his whole plan of battle according to several possibilities: if Pompey also hastened here, he would be forced to be far from the coast and from the stores he had stored at Dyrrakium. if Pompey crossed the sea to Italy, he joined forces with the army of Domitius and crossed Iluricum to the relief of Italy; if Pompey tried to besiege Apollonia and Oricum, wishing to cut off Caesar from the whole coast, laid siege to Scipio, and forced Pompey, out of resignation, to rescue his own party.Caesar therefore sent envoys to Gnaeus Domitius, and wrote to him what he wanted him to do.After leaving four battalions garrisoned at Apollonia, one battalion at Lysus, and three battalions at Oricum, and having settled the wounded in several places, proceeded through Epirus and Artamanian march.Pompey also speculated about Caesar's plan, thinking that he must go quickly to Scipio. If Caesar was marching there, he would rescue Scipio, but if Caesar wanted to wait for the legion from Italy and cavalry, unwilling to leave the coast and Oricum, he attacked Domitius with all his forces. 79.For these reasons, each side strives for swift action, both to rescue those on its own side, and not to miss the sudden opportunity to crush the opponent.But the trip to Apollonia had diverted Caesar from the direct road, and Pompey marched lightly through Candavia into Macedonia.Another unforeseen difficulty arose, namely, that Domitius, who for many days had been stationed near Scipio's camp, had by this time moved his camp from there, and arrived at Close to Heraclea in Cantavia, as if fate itself had sent him to Pompey.Even so, Caesar's Ministry was not aware of the matter until this time.At the same time, after the battle of Dyrrakium, Pompey sent letters to various provinces and towns, greatly exaggerating and expanding the truth, and rumors spread everywhere that Caesar had been defeated and fled, and his army was almost wiped out.These rumors made the road dangerous, and many towns turned their backs on Caesar's friendship.This situation made it impossible for the envoys sent by Caesar to Domitius and the envoys sent by Domitius to Caesar to go to Caesar on many different roads. .But some of the Allobrogs, the friends of Laucilus and Egus, whom we have said defected to Pompeii, met some of Domitius' spies on the way, I don't know whether they were old acquaintances because they had fought side by side in Gaul, or whether they were so proud of their victory that they told them all the truth, including Caesar's departure and Pompey's arrival.Domitius was barely four quarters away when he received their report.Thanks to the help of these enemies, this danger was avoided.On his way to Aeginium, a small town on the border of Thessalia, he met Caesar. 80.Having thus assembled his troops, Caesar reached Gomfi, the first town encountered on entering Thessaly from Epirus.Only a few months ago the people here had sent messengers to Caesar of their own accord, offering to put at his disposal all they had, and asking him to send a garrison.But we have said above that the many times exaggerated rumors of the battle of Dyrrakium had already preceded him there, and that Androsthenes, the magistrate of Thessaly, preferred to share in Pompey's victory. Instead of being a partner in Caesar's ill-fated business, he forced a great number of slaves and freedmen from the fields to the city, shut the gates, and sent messengers to Scipio and Pompey, demanding that they come Help, said: He is confident in defending the town, provided reinforcements come soon, for he cannot stand a long siege.Scipio, having learned that both armies had left Dyrrakium, had taken his troops to Larissa.Pompey had not yet reached Thessaly.After Caesar built the fortifications for the camp, he ordered to prepare the ladders and barriers for an assault attack on the city, and prepare the fence.When these things were arranged, he encouraged his soldiers, telling them that the occupation of a well-stocked and wealthy city would be a great remedy to men like themselves who were in short supply of everything. At the same time, this city can be used as an example to intimidate other cities. This must be done quickly before the reinforcements arrive.Thus, in the great enthusiasm of the soldiers, just after he reached the ninth hour of the day, he began to lay siege to the walled town, captured it before sunset, and handed it over to the soldiers. looting.Then he immediately moved his camp out of the town.Before the news and rumors of the capture of the town had reached Metropolis.
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