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Chapter 10 Volume 3 41-60

Civil War 凯撒 6962Words 2018-03-21
41.As soon as Caesar knew that Pompey was in Asparagium, he also rushed there with his army. After capturing Baltini, where Pompey had an army guarding there, he arrived at Pompey on the third day. Set up camp not far from him.The next day he brought out the whole army and laid out a battle formation, giving Pompey a chance to fight against each other.Seeing that Pompey stood still, he realized that other plans must be made, and he led his troops back to camp.The next day he set out with his whole army, and made a wide detour by the hard and narrow paths to Dyrrakium, hoping to either drive Pompey back to Dyrrakium, or to reunite him with the Dyrrakium was cut off, because Pompey had accumulated there all his provisions and all his war equipment.As expected, because Pompey did not see clearly his plan at first, seeing that Caesar was taking a road leading from this place to another, he thought that he was forced to leave because of lack of food.Later, he received a report from the scouts and moved forward the next day, hoping to take a shortcut and copy in front of Caesar.Caesar, having suspected such a thing beforehand, encouraged his men to bear the hardships calmly, resting only for a short time during the night, and arriving at Dyrrakium in the morning.As soon as Lao Yuan saw Pompey's vanguard, he immediately set up camp there.

42.Pompey was thus cut off from Dyrrakium, and his plans could no longer be carried out, so he resorted to the next best thing, and camped at a high place called Petra, to which small ships could sail. , and can block the wind blowing from certain directions.He ordered some of his ships to muster thither, and to bring food and supplies to Asia and all the regions under his control.Caesar also considered that the war would be protracted for a long time, and that the entire coast was blocked by Pompey's subordinates with great vigilance, and that the ships he built in Sicily, Gaul, and Italy in winter were delayed, and the supplies shipped from Italy had already been delayed. Without hope, they sent Quintus Tillius and his lieutenants Lucius and Canuleus into Epirus to try to raise food, and because this area is far away, and set up in some places opened granaries, and assigned the task of transporting grain to the neighboring towns.He also ordered that all the provisions in Lysus, in Parthenia, and in all the fortresses be collected and collected.The number is still very small, partly because of the poor natural conditions of the place—the country is rugged and mountainous, and the people mostly eat foreign food—and also because Pompey had foreseen this, and he killed Partini a few days ago. The people were treated as conquered, searched and plundered all their food, dug up their houses, and moved all their cavalry to Petra.

43.After knowing these things, Caesar drew up a plan according to the local terrain.Surrounding Pompey's camp were many high and rugged mountains, which he first occupied with his garrisons, and built fortified forts on them, and then built a fortification according to the topography of each place, so that the forts Linked up one by one to besiege Pompey.His idea was that, first of all, his own food supply was very short, and Pompey's cavalry was far stronger. With such a fortification, he could take less risk to supply himself with grain and supplies from any source. subordinates.At the same time, he can also prevent Pompey's cavalry from going out to harvest, so that they can no longer play a role in the war.Moreover, when the news spread all over the world that Pompey was surrounded by Caesar and dared not come out to fight, his prestige could be greatly reduced. It seems that he mainly relied on this prestige to influence the foreigners.

44.Pompey was unwilling to leave the sea or leave Darrakium, for all his war equipment, spears, weapons, and ballistas, were assembled there, and he had to carry his provisions by ships to maintain his army, but he did not unless A single battle could not prevent the progress of Caesar's siege, which at this time he was determined to avoid.The only thing left was a desperate strategy of capturing as many hills as possible, sending garrisons to hold as large a tract of land as possible, and keeping Caesar's army as dispersed as possible.That's what he does.By erecting twenty-four blockhouses, a circle of fifteen miles was enclosed, in which he grazed.There are also some hand-seeded grain fields on this land, which can be used to feed livestock.While our army tried to prevent Pompey from rushing out from anywhere and attacking our army with a long line of fortifications, the enemy also built a long line of fortifications inside, so that our army could not enter any place in it. Go surround them.However, because they had a large number of soldiers, the inner circle to be surrounded was relatively small, so they rushed ahead of us.Whenever Caesar was about to occupy a place, Pompey, though he had resolved not to stop it with all his forces, lest there should be a battle, sent out at the proper place the enormous number of archers and stoners he had, so that Many men in our army were wounded, and so that our army was so apprehensive of being hit by arrows that almost all soldiers made themselves short underclothes and body shields of felt, thick cloth, or hides, and arrow stones.

45.In occupying the ground, both sides tried their best.Caesar wanted to confine Pompey to a circle as narrow as possible, and Pompey wanted to occupy a circle as large as possible, with as many hills as possible.For this reason, fights often took place.On one occasion, when Caesar's ninth legion took a position and began to fortify, Pompey also occupied a neighboring hill facing it, and began to hinder our army's work.As Caesar's position had a slope that was almost flat, Pompey first surrounded it with archers and stone archers, and then sent a large number of light soldiers, and brought war machines, to hinder the progress of the work.Our army has to defend itself and build fortifications at the same time, which is very inconvenient.Caesar saw that his men were wounded on all sides, and ordered them to fall back and leave the place.The retreat required a slope, and the enemy pressed us all the more to keep our troops from retreating, because they believed that our withdrawal from that place was due to fear.It is said that it was at that time that Pompey boasted triumphantly before his party that he would be willing if Caesar's legions could withdraw without serious loss from the point into which they had so boldly crashed. Seen by others as a useless commander.

46.Caesar, apprehensive about the retreat of his men, ordered the palisades to be sent to the end of the hill, and to be piled up facing the enemy.He also ordered his soldiers to dig a ditch of medium width behind them, just under its cover, and to make the ground as difficult as possible everywhere.He also placed stone archers in place to cover our retreat.When these arrangements were completed, he ordered the army to be withdrawn.Pompey's army began to advance more haughtily and boldly in pursuit of our army, and they overturned the fortified palisades in order to pass over the ditch.When Caesar saw it, he was afraid that his army would appear to be fleeing instead of retreating, and would cause greater losses. Just as his men were rushing down the slope, Antony, who was in command of the legion, passed by. The mouth of the mouth encouraged them, and ordered the trumpet to issue a call, telling them to charge at the enemy.The soldiers of the Ninth Legion united themselves, and suddenly, throwing their lances, they rushed up the hill from the lower ground, driving Pompey's army down the road, and forcing them to turn and fly.In their retreat they were greatly hampered by overturned palisades, posts erected in their path, and ditches cutting across the road.Our army killed many enemies, and I only lost five people in total. I thought that this was enough to allow me to retreat without any danger, so I retreated very quietly.So, after resting for a while on this side of the place, they surrounded several other hills and completed their fortifications.

47.This method of warfare is new and unfamiliar, no matter in terms of the number of fortresses, the scope of activities, and the size of the fortifications, or in terms of the entire blockade system and other aspects.For whenever an army tries to besiege another, it must have attacked a defeated and weakened enemy, beaten in battle, or frightened by some setback, On your own side, both infantry and cavalry have an advantage in numbers, and the purpose of encirclement is usually to prevent the enemy from obtaining food.But this time, Caesar used a relatively weak force to surround an intact fresh army, and their supplies of various materials were also extremely abundant, because a large number of ships came from all directions every day to deliver supplies, regardless of whether it was east, west, north or south No matter which direction the wind blows, it will never be without a direction that is in a tailwind position.But Caesar himself was in the midst of extreme distress, and food was exhausted near and far.Nevertheless, the soldiers endured it with extraordinary patience, for they remembered in their minds that they had suffered nearly the same distress in Spain last year, and that by their own labor and patience they had brought to an end a very hard war; Suffered a terrible famine in Alesia, and a still more difficult experience in Avaricum, and still conquered very important countries.Therefore, when they were offered barley or beans, they did not refuse.As for meat, there was a large supply from Epirus, which was well received by them.

48.Some people who are idle have discovered the root of a plant called "Kara", which, when mixed with milk, has greatly alleviated our food shortage.They make it like bread.There are so many of these things.When the men of Pompey's men made fun of our starvation in their conversations, it was customary for our troops to throw bread of this stuff on their side, to thwart their hopes. 49.By this time the corn was beginning to ripen, and this hope alone encouraged them to endure hunger, believing that they would soon be abundant.It is not uncommon to hear people talking on duty, saying that they would rather eat bark for a living than let Pompey slip out of their hands.Furthermore, they were pleased to learn from the fugitives that, while the enemy's horses were still alive, the rest of the cattle were dead.Because they were tightly confined in a very small place, the stench from a large number of corpses, and the continuous labor they were never used to every day, their health was also very poor, and there was also a serious lack of water.For the rivers and all the streams that flow into the sea have been either cut off by Caesar, or blocked up with great works.This area was originally mountainous and rugged. He buried wood in the ground, piled up soil on the ground, and built earth dams to block the narrow mouth of the valley and stop the water flow, so that the enemy could only stay in the low swamp. And digging wells, this kind of work becomes an extra burden on top of their daily labor.These water sources are often far from some of their blockhouses, and dry up quickly in the scorching climate.Caesar's army, on the other hand, was in excellent health, had plenty of water to use, and was well supplied with every kind of subsistence except grain, so that they saw the corn ripen, and felt that a better day was approaching. Each day draws nearer, and greater hope has opened up before them.

50.In novelty wars, both sides are also inventing novel methods of fighting.When the enemy saw from the flames which part of the fortress our troops were on guard at night, a group of them rushed up quietly, shot random arrows at the densely packed soldiers of our army, and then hurriedly retreated to their own side. .These things have taught our army by experience the following remedy, that is, to set fire to one place, and to stand guard at another...   51.Meanwhile, Publius Sulla, who had entrusted the battalion to him on his departure, Caesar, being reported of the matter, came with two legions to support the battalion.Once they came, they easily drove back Fei Pei's army.In fact, they didn't have the courage to face our army, and they couldn't withstand the attack of our army. Once the front was washed away, the rest turned around and fled, abandoning their positions.But when our army pursued them, Sulla was afraid that they had gone too far, so he called them back.There were many who thought that if he had been determined to pursue, perhaps the war might have ended that day.However, Sulla’s approach seems not to be blamed, because the responsibilities of a lieutenant general are different from those of a commander. The lieutenant general should follow orders in all actions, while the commander must consider the overall situation without restraint.Sulla was left behind by Caesar to manage the camp affairs, and he was satisfied with rescuing his troops, and did not want to go out for a formal decisive battle; going out for a decisive battle might encounter unforeseen risks and be regarded as a It is to snatch the power of the commander-in-chief.As for Pompey's army, their situation gave them great difficulty in retreating, for they were advancing up the hill from very unfavorable ground, and if they retreated along the hill, they feared that our troops would be taken from the heights. Rush down to catch up.In addition, there was not much time left before the sun set, and because they were eager to end the battle, they had already postponed the battle until the evening.Therefore, Pompey had no choice but to take measures suitable to the situation at the time.He occupied a certain hill, at a distance from our army, just out of reach of the weapons fired by the machine, and stationed there, and built fortifications, and gathered all his troops there.

52.In addition, during the same period, battles were fought in two other places.For Pompey, in order to disperse our army evenly in various places, tried to attack several forts at the same time, so that the neighboring garrisons could not send reinforcements.At one point Volcatius Tullus with three battalions withstood the attack of a legion, and drove it from the place.In another place the Germans rushed out of our fortifications, killed many of the enemy, and retreated unharmed to their own side. 53.Thus there were six battles in one day, three at Dyrrakium and three at the outlying fortifications.When summing up all their results, it was found that Pompey's army had lost about two thousand men, among whom were many veterans and centurions--including Lucius Phra, who had been in charge of the province of Asia as a magistrate. Valerius, the son of Cus—and captured the six-faced company flag.Our army lost less than twenty men in all these battles.But in the middle of the fort, not a single soldier was not injured, and in one battalion four centurions lost their eyes.As a proof of their toil and danger, they counted to Caesar some thirty thousand arrows shot at the fort.When the shield of the centurion Skava was brought to Caesar, it was found to have one hundred and twenty holes in it.In addition to rewarding him with 200,000 sesterces, Caesar also praised him for the merits he had done for himself and the republic, and announced that he would be promoted from the centurion of the eighth battalion to the centurion of the first battalion.For it is agreed that the fortress has indeed been preserved in large measure due to his efforts.Later, he rewarded the battalion generously, giving them double pay, rations, clothing, food, and combat rewards.

54.During the night Pompey built a strong fortification, and in the following days built towers, raised the fortification to fifteen feet, and then barricaded this part of his camp.After five days, by chance, on the second dark night, he blocked all the gates of the camps, and laid many obstacles to stop the enemy, and at the beginning of the third day, he quietly came out with his army and returned to the village. Go to your original fortification. 55.For the next few days, Caesar brought his troops into battle every day to the level ground, and pushed his legions almost as far as Pompey's camp, to see if Pompey was willing to make a decisive battle.His vanguard maintained only such a distance from the enemy's ramparts that the weapons fired from the ballista could not reach.Although Pompey, in order to protect his reputation and the public opinion of the people, also arranged his army in front of the camp, he arranged his third column on the rampart, so that when the whole army was drawn out, it would be possible to Covered by light spears hurled from the ramparts. 56.Aetolia, Acarnania, and Amphelokia, as we have said, were recovered by Cassius Longinus and Calvisius Sabinus, whom Caesar considered You should try to get Achaya and move forward a little bit.He therefore sent Phoebus Callenus with several battalions.Accompanied by Sabinus and Cassius.Knowing their approach, Lutilius Lupus, who was sent by Pompey to guard the other side, resolved to block the Isthmus of Corinth and prevent Callenus from entering Achaia.Callenus took advantage of the devotion of the towns of Delphi, Thebes, and Ochomenus to recover them, and took some towns by force.He also sent envoys to visit other towns and try to make them friendly with Caesar.Phoebus's main strength is almost devoted to these tasks. 57.When this was done at Achaia and Dyrrakium, it was already known that Scipio had entered Macedonia.Caesar still did not forget his previous intention, and sent Aulus Claudius, a mutual friend of him and Sifua, to Scipio. Claudius was originally recommended by Scipio. , was regarded as a close friend by Caesar.Caesar told him to give him a letter and some words, to be brought to Scipio, which generally read: After exhausting all means for peace, he thought that the reason why nothing was done was that he wanted them to deal with the matter. those who were afraid of making his proposals to Pompey at the wrong time.Scipio, on the other hand, has the power not only to say freely what he thinks is right, but also to a great extent to coerce and control a man who has gone astray.In addition, the army he commanded belongs to his own name, so.Besides prestige, he has power to coerce.If he could do this, everyone would owe to him alone the tranquility of Italy, the peace of the province, and the security of the whole state.Claudius took these messages to Scipio, and though in the first few days he seemed willing to listen to him, in later days he was not allowed to attend the council, because Scipio Rebuked by Favornius, which we learn only after the war, he returned to Caesar without success. 58.In order to keep Pompey's cavalry more conveniently at Dyrrakium, and prevent them from gathering cattle, Caesar barricaded the two narrow passages, as we have already said, with great fortifications, and built blockhouses in those places.When Pompey found that the cavalry could not do anything, he returned them to his fortifications by ship again after a few days.The fodder was so scarce that they had to feed their horses with leaves picked from trees or young reed roots crushed, because they had used up the grain sown by others in the fortifications and were forced to go to the branch, some distance away by sea. Kula and Acarnania went to carry the hay.Since these things were not available, barley was substituted, and the horses were maintained in various ways.But in the future, not only barley and other hay, but also the forage harvested everywhere began to be in short supply, and even the branches and leaves on the trees were eaten up. The horses were useless because of their skinny bones. Pompey thought that a breakthrough must be made. Let's try to find a way out. 59.Among Caesar's cavalry were two brothers of the tribe of Allobrogs, Laucilus and Egus, the sons of Adbucilus, who had been for many years the leader of the state.They were men of uncommon courage, and their prowess and valor had greatly aided Caesar in all his campaigns in Gaul.For this reason Caesar bestowed on them very honorable offices in their own country, and managed to get them elected to the Senate with exception, and distributed to them the lands of Gaul and the great wealth which they had wrested from the enemy, so that they From poor to rich.These two men, because of their bravery, were not only respected before Caesar, but also loved in the army.But as they depended on Caesar's friendship, they puffed up with an arrogance born of ignorance and savagery.They looked down on their fellow countrymen, defrauded the cavalry of their pay, and moved all the booty to their homes.The people, irritated by their conduct, came together before Caesar, and publicly accused the brothers of their crimes, and accused them, among many other misdeeds, of misreporting the number of the cavalry and of eating up their pay. 60.Caesar, thinking that this was not the time to punish crimes, and praising their bravery, postponed the whole matter.In private, however, he reproached the two men for taking advantage of the cavalry, and urged them to place all their hopes on his own friendship, which they could foresee from the favors he had done them in the past. s things.Even so, this incident aroused great indignation and contempt for them, and they were well aware of it, because besides the condemnation of others, there were comments from their own relatives and friends, and their own consciences were troubled.Besides the stimuli of these shames, and the fear that they might not be forgiven, but left for future punishment, they resolved to leave us, to try their luck and make new friends.After conferring with the few retainers to whom they dared propose this venture, they first attempted to kill Gaius Volusenus, the cavalry chief, and, as it was later learned after the end of the war, they intended to be killed. It seems that he went to Pompey with some gifts of entry.Later, the matter seemed very difficult, and they had no chance to do it, so they borrowed as much money as they could, pretending that they wanted to satisfy their fellow countrymen and return the money they defrauded.After buying many horses, they defected to Pompey with those of their own who had engaged them in their plans.
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