twenty one.Since the Consul Servilius and other officials opposed it, Caelius did not achieve his intended purpose, and in order to fan the flames among the masses, he canceled the previous law of his own and proposed two others, one for tenants. One year's rent forgiveness, and another cancellation of all debts.When the crowd besieged Gaius Treponius, some were wounded, and Caelius drove him from his seat.Consul Servilius raised the matter before the Senate, which resolved to suspend Caelius from office.By this decree the consul forbade him to attend the senate, and drove him from the pulpit when he attempted to address the public.Under the double stimulus of shame and grief, he pretended on the surface that he was going to Caesar, but secretly sent someone to Milo, who had killed Claudius and was condemned for it, and summoned him back to Italy.Because Milo once provided large-scale gladiatorial performances, there are still a group of remaining gladiators around him.Caelius joined him, and sent him first to the region of Thurii, to stir up the shepherds there.When he himself reached Casilinum, he found that at about the same time his standard and weapons were intercepted at Capua, that the gladiators who were about to betray the city to him had been caught in Naples, and because the Capuans I have seen through his plan, and I am afraid it will be dangerous, so I also shut him out of the city gate.Local civic groups have taken up arms, treating him like an enemy. "He gave up his plan and changed the itinerary. twenty two.At the same time, Milo sent letters to some of the surrounding autonomous towns, explaining that what he did was done in accordance with Pompey's instructions and orders, and that Pompey's instructions were brought to him by Viblius.He incited those he believed to be cornered by debt.When he could not win men among them, he freed some slaves from their dungeons, and proceeded to lay siege to Xhosa in the region of Thurii.There he met Quintus Perdius, the magistrate who was leading a legion... killed by a stone thrown from the city wall.Although Caelius claimed to be going to Caesar, he also went to Thurii.There he was killed by some of the townspeople, when he was trying to seduce them with the promise of money for the Gallic and German cavalry sent by Caesar to garrison there.The semblance of a colossal accident, which overwhelmed officials and unsettled Italy, was thus swiftly and easily over. twenty three.Libo sailed from Oricum with a fleet of fifty ships under his command, reached Brundisium, and took possession of the isle facing the port of Brundisium.Because he thinks that it is better to tightly block one of the only ways our army must go out than to tightly block all coasts and ports.He arrived very suddenly, and he burned all the merchant ships he encountered, and took away a ship full of grain, which caused our army to fall into great panic.At night, he also sent cavalry and archers to land to drive away our army's cavalry post.His terrain gave him such an advantage that he wrote to Pompey that, if he pleased himself, he could order the rest of his ships to be brought ashore and repaired, and that he would use his fleet Can prevent Caesar from getting reinforcements. twenty four.Antony, who was at Brundisium at that time, was so confident in the valor of his men that he put about sixty canoes, which belonged to the ship, behind rafts and baffles, and picked out The soldiers put them on the boats and moored at various places along the coast, and at the same time ordered the two triremes he ordered to build at Brundisium to sail out to the pass of the sea line, pretending to train the oarsmen.When Libo saw them approaching so boldly, he sent five quadremes against them, hoping to capture them.When the enemy approached our ship, the veterans of our army began to retreat to the port. The enemy was unsuspecting and chased them enthusiastically.Then, at a sudden command, Antony's rowboats pressed upon the enemy from all sides, and at the first charge captured one of these quadremes, with its oarsmen and guards, and forced the rest to run away shamefully.To this loss was added the cavalry Antony had placed along the coast, preventing them from getting water.In this condition of want of water and disgrace, Libo left Brundisium and abandoned the blockade of our army. 25．By this time several months had passed, and winter was almost over, but ships and legions had not yet come to Caesar from Brundisium.In Caesar's opinion, several opportunities to do so were in fact missed, because when there was often a favorable wind, he thought it best to take advantage of it.The longer this period lasted, the more cautiously those who commanded Pompey's navy guarded the coast, and the more confident they were in intercepting our reinforcements.They were still being reproved by letters from Pompey, admonishing them that, having failed to check Caesar on his first arrival, he would now at all costs check the rest of his army.Now, the wind was weakening day by day, and they were looking forward to a more difficult season of sailing.In view of this situation, Caesar wrote to his subordinates in Brundisium in a more stern tone, telling them to set sail as soon as they meet the right wind direction, not to miss the opportunity, no matter whether they can sail all the way to Apollo You can sail to the coast of La Petia or sail to the coast of La Petia, and you will dock there.These places were out of the reach of the vigilance of the enemy ships, for they dared not stray too far from their own ports. 26．Under the command of Marcus Antony and Fius Callenus, the soldiers were daring and heroic, and they encouraged each other that for Caesar's safety, one should not shy away from going through fire and water.They set off on a southerly wind, and crossed Apollonia the next day.When they could be seen from land, Coponius the Orthodoxy anchored at Dyrrakium with the fleet of Rhodes, and sailed out of the port with his fleet.Just when they were about to catch up with our army, taking advantage of the weakening wind, the same south wind came up again and helped us again, but he still refused to let it go, and hoped that the hard work of the sailors and Perseverance will overcome even the might of the storm.Although our army was driven by a strong wind and passed Dyrrakium, they still kept their eyes on us.Our army, in spite of the favor of the god of fortune, was afraid of being attacked by the enemy's ships when the wind died down. The ship ducked in.The port, sheltered from the south-west wind, was not safe from the south wind, but, they reckoned, the danger of the storm was always less than that of the enemy's fleet.However, the luck was unbelievable. When they just entered this port, the south wind that had been blowing for two consecutive days suddenly stopped, and it turned into a southwest wind. 27．Here, one can see the sudden change of fate. Those who were worried about themselves just now have been sheltered by the safest port, while those who wanted to harm our ships are forced to fight for themselves. The security was terrified.As circumstances turned, the storm protected us, and wrecked Rhodes' fleet, sixteen decked ships, all smashed and sunk, and not a single one remaining.As for the large number of oarsmen and soldiers, some died on the rocks, and some were dragged ashore by our army.All these men were saved by Caesar and sent home. 28．Two of our ships, not knowing where the other ships were anchored at this time, stopped opposite Lisus, as we were traveling too slowly on the road, covered in the darkness of night.Otakilius Crassus, who was in charge of Lysus, sent several rowboats and many small boats to catch them.At the same time, he negotiated with them about surrender, promising them that if they surrendered, they would not be harmed.One of the two ships carried 220 additional recruits to the Legion, and the other carried less than 200 veterans of the Legion.From this we can see how much security a strong will can give, for those recruits, amazed at the number of enemy ships, and exhausted with waves and seasickness, were assured that the enemy would not harm them. After that, he surrendered to Otakilius.When they were brought to him, their sacred oaths disregarded, they were all brutally murdered before his presence.Although the veterans of the legion also suffered from the wind, waves and bilge muddy water, they thought that they should never give up their courage and make other plans. They spent the first half of the night pretending to surrender and negotiating terms. Forcing their helmsman to anchor the ship on the beach, where they spent the rest of the night while they themselves found a suitable spot.At first day Ortakilius sent against them about four hundred cavalry who guarded that part of the coast, and some who came with them armed from the garrison.These men of our army defended themselves, and having killed some of the enemy, made their way safely to their own troops. 29．After this battle, the organization of the Roman diaspora living in Lysus—the town that Caesar had given them before, and who had taken care to fortify them—incorporated Antony into their town, Support him with various things.Otakilius, fearing for his safety, fled the town and went to Pompey.Antony's whole army consisted of three legions of veterans, one of recruits, and eight hundred cavalry, and having landed, he sent the greater part of his ships back to Italy, where he carried the rest of the soldiers and cavalry. .He kept at Lysus a certain Gallic vessel called a ponto, in order that Pompey should suddenly send his army back thither if he thought there was no one left in Italy—this is said in Widespread among the masses—Caesar would have a way of chasing him.He also sent messengers hastening to Caesar to inform him where his army had landed and how many troops it had brought. 30．Caesar and Pompey knew this almost at the same time, for they themselves had seen the ships sail past Apollonia and Dyrrakium, and had been driving them on land in this direction.But for the first few days, they had no idea where they had been heading all the way.After they understood the situation, the two sides adopted different plans. Caesar considered that he should unite with Antony as much as possible, and Pompey considered that it would be best to meet the enemy on the march so that he might take advantage of the opponent's surprise. If not in time, attack them with ambushes.Both men set out with their troops on the same day, Pompey secretly by night and Caesar openly by day, from their permanent camp on the Appsus.However, Caesar has a long way to go, and he needs to go upstream and make a big circle to cross the river at a ferry.Because Pompey didn't want to cross the river and the road was convenient, he rushed to Antony with a quick march.When he knew that the other party was also coming towards him, he found a suitable place, stopped the troops, and ordered all his subordinates not to leave the camp or raise fire, so that his arrival could be kept more secret.These actions were at once reported to Antony by some Greeks, who, while sending messengers to Caesar, remained in the camp all day.Caesar was at his side the next day.When Pompey heard of Caesar's approach, he left the place so as not to be caught between the two armies, and with his whole army went to Aspalagium, a town of the Dyrrakium, where suitable place to pitch camp. 31．At this time, Scipio suffered some losses near Mount Amanus, but still gave himself the title of "Imperator".Having done this, he exacted large sums of money from towns and princes, extorted two years' tax from the tax-collectors of his province, borrowed from them the next year's tax, and collected cavalry from the whole province. .When these were collected, he left behind his immediate enemies, the Parthians who had not long ago killed the commander Marcus Crassus and besieged Marcus Byblos, and took his Legions and cavalry leave Syria.When he reached the province, it was at a time when there was great anxiety and panic over the fear of a Parthian war, and some soldiers could be heard threatening to go if they were taken against the enemy, and if Take them against citizens and consuls, they will never take up arms.Still he marched with his legions to Pergamon, where he rested in some of the richest cities, rewarding them with great rewards, and handing over these towns to them to sack for peace of mind. 32．At the same time, they extract money from all over the province by means of the most savage extortion, and devise all kinds of methods of exploitation to satisfy their greed.Taxes were imposed on every slave and child, and taxes on pillars and gates, provisions, soldiers, arms, oarsmen, crossbows, and transports were demanded.No matter what kind of expropriation, as long as a title can be found, it can be used as a sufficient reason to collect money.Not only towns, but almost even villages and forts, have a man with a military order, and of these men the most ferocious and cruelest are found to be considered the ablest men and the best citizens.The province is full of school lieutenants, officers of the army, generals and inspectors. Besides the money they are ordered to ask for, they also make some money for themselves. They claim that they are from their hometown. Expelled, there is not one thing that is not lacking.With such grandiose excuses they cover up the ugliest deeds.Add to these things the heavy usury that usually occurs in wartime when money is spread collectively among the population of a certain place, and in such circumstances a day's delay is said to be considered a grace.Thus, during these two years, the province's debts increased exponentially.Despite this, the huge amount of money extorted from Roman citizens in the provinces did not decrease, but was received by every expatriate organization and every town.They represent these as debts at the behest of the senate, to be repaid, as in Syria, from taxpayers for next year's taxes as an advance. 33．Moreover, at Ephesus, Scipio ordered that all the money that had been deposited in the temple of Diana be withdrawn.He set a specific date for doing it.When they came to the temple, and brought with them a group of senators who had been invited to the work, there happened to be a letter from Pompey, informing him that Caesar had come across the sea with his legions. If you want him to rush to Pompey with the army quickly, everything else should be put on hold.Upon receiving this letter, he left those whom he had invited, and began his preparations for the march to Macedonia, which he set off in a few days.This accident brought safety to the money in Ephesus. 34．Caesar, having joined Antony, transferred also the legions which he had stationed at Oricum for the defense of the coast.He thought he should push further and win over several provinces.When messengers from Thessalia and Aetolia came to him, promising that all the towns of their tribe would obey him if he sent a garrison, he sent Lucius Ka Cius Longinus entered Thessalia with the legion of recruits, which was called the Twenty-seventh; and two hundred cavalry; Pinus entered Aetolia with five battalions and a few cavalry.He gave them special instructions, because these areas are all nearby, so he asked them to provide food.He ordered Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus to enter Macedonia with two legions, the Eleventh and the Twelfth, and five hundred cavalry.In that part of the province called "Free Macedonia," Menedmus, the local leader, was sent as an emissary to express to Caesar the extraordinary admiration of all their people. 35．Of these, Calvisius, upon his arrival, was taken in with the utmost kindness by all the Aetolians, and having driven out the enemy garrisons at Calydon and Genpactus, he occupied the whole Aetolia.Cassius arrives in Thessalia with his legions.There had been two factions here, and he had encountered two very different moods in this town.A man named Hegesaltus, who had been in power for a long time, sided with Pompey, and Petraus, a young man of very noble birth, tried to support Caesar with the strength of himself and his party. 36．Meanwhile, Domitius entered Macedonia, and envoys from many cities began to gather to meet him.The news that Scipio was approaching with his legions aroused widespread speculation and rumors among the people, for rumors always precede facts in critical times.Scipio hastened to Domitius without delay anywhere in Macedon.When he was only twenty miles away from Domitius, he suddenly turned his head again and rushed to Cassius Longinus, who was in Thessalia.This action of his came with such haste that the news that he had arrived was sent at the same time as the news that he was coming.Moreover, in order to be able to march more briskly, he left all the luggage of the legion on the Alyako River that separates Macedonia and Thessalia, and sent Favornius to stay with eight battalions to guard, and ordered that Fortify a bunker.At the same time, the cavalry of King Curtis, who were used to haunting the border of Thessalia, also galloped towards Cassius' camp.Cassius had heard that Scipio was approaching, and when he saw the cavalry, he mistook it for Scipio's army. He was panicked for a moment, and retreated to the mountains surrounding Thessalia, and started from there. Turn around and head in the direction of Ambrakia.But when Scipio was in hot pursuit, he sent a letter from Marcus II Favornius, saying: Domitius is approaching with his legions, and without Scipio's help, he will defend. I can't live in the stronghold where I am stationed now.After receiving this letter, Scipio changed his plan and route, stopped chasing Cassius, and hurried back to aid Favornius.He marched day and night, and arrived at Favornius, and the timing was most unfortunate. When the smoke of Domitius' march was discernible, it was precisely the vanguard of Scipio who could be seen. when.Thus Domitius' vigor brought safety to Cassius, and Scipio's speed brought safety to Favornius. 37．Between the permanent camp of Scipio and that of Domitius, where the river Alyacmon passed, he stayed two days in that camp, and at dawn on the third day he crossed with his army by the ford. , After building a camp, he deployed his troops in front of the camp the next morning.At this time, Domitius also thought without hesitation that he should lead the legion out for a formal battle.But, though the plain between the two armies was about two leagues wide, Domitius pushed his troops as far as Scipio's camp.Scipio still persisted in refusing to leave his fortress.Although it was with great difficulty that Domitius was able to restrain the soldiers and prevent them from going into battle, it was mainly because a stream with steep banks happened to be in front of Scipio's camp, which hindered our advance.When Scipio saw the zeal and desire of our army to fight, he considered that the next day he would either be forced to fight against his will, or shut himself up in the camp in a most disgraceful way, even though He came here with great hopes, but his reckless advance put him in a dilemma. He crossed the river at night without even announcing the dismantling of the camp, and returned to the place where he came from. and camped there on a natural high ground by the river bank.After resting for a few days, he set up a cavalry ambush by night at the place where our army almost often went to graze in the past few days.When Quintus Varus, master of cavalry under Domitius, arrived, according to his daily custom, they suddenly came running from their ambush.But our army valiantly withstood their attack, and as soon as everyone had quickly returned to their ranks, the whole team turned around and launched an attack on the enemy.Having slain about eighty of them, and driving the rest into flight, our army turned back to camp with the loss of only two men. 38．After these things, Domitius hoped to draw Scipio out to fight, pretending that he was forced to camp because of the shortage of food.When he was called and ready to go according to the usual practice in the army, he advanced three miles and stopped all the legions and cavalry at a suitable and hidden place.In preparation for the pursuit, Scipio sent a large part of his cavalry to explore and learn which way Domitius had taken.When they advanced all the way, when the several teams walking in front had entered the ambush area of our army, the neighing of the war horses aroused their suspicion, and they began to retreat towards their troops.The people following them also stopped when they saw them backing away quickly.Since our ambush had been detected, our army intercepted these two cavalry detachments in order not to waste time waiting for the rest.The attack, which included their cavalry chief Marcus Opimius.All were either killed or taken captive and brought back to Domitius. 39．Caesar, having removed the coast garrison, as has been said, left three battalions at Oricum to guard the town, and placed in their custody the ships of war which he had brought from Italy.This task and the town were entrusted to the lieutenant-general Achilius Caninus.He withdrew all the ships of our army to the inner harbor behind the town, tied them to the shore, and sank a merchant ship in the mouth of the harbor, sealed the harbor, and attached another ship to this ship. For the ship, he built a tower so that it faced the entrance of the harbour.On this tower, he stationed soldiers, ordering them to be on the alert for all sudden accidents. 40．As soon as these things became known, Gnaeus Pompey the Younger, who was in command of the Egyptian fleet, came to Orikum, and with a capstan and many ropes, with great difficulty hauled away the submerged ship, and attacked The second ship that Achillius lay there guarding, he attacked with many ships, and they all had towers on them, as high as ours, so that they could fight from higher ground, little Pompey From time to time, he sent new troops to replace the tired ones.At the same time he attacked the walls of the town from all sides, using ladders on land and fleets at the same time, in order to disperse the opponent's forces.Thus, taking advantage of the fatigue of our army, and using a large number of arrows and stones, he overcame our army, drove off our soldiers who were guarding the ship-they were all taken by boats and fled-and captured the ship.At the same time, on the other hand, he took possession of the breakwater, which jutted out naturally, and which almost turned the town into an island, and rested the bottoms of four biremes with logs, and drove them all the way hard with crowbars. Towed into the inner harbour.Then they attacked on both sides the empty ships of war which were now moored to the shore, and he took four of them, and set fire to the rest.When this work was completed, he retained Decimus Lelius, who had been sent from the Asiatic fleet, to prevent the supplies from Pelis and Amantia from entering the town.Pompey the younger himself went to Lysus, attacked the thirty transports Antony had left in the harbor, and burned them all. .He also tried to take Lisus, which was defended by Roman citizens belonging to the diaspora of the town and soldiers sent there by Caesar to act as a garrison; He got out of there with nothing.