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Chapter 8 Volume 3 1-20

Civil War 凯撒 8078Words 2018-03-21
1.Caesar presided over the election as dictator, and Julius Caesar and Publius Servilius were elected consuls, the year in which Caesar could legally be elected consul.When these tasks were completed, because credit was tight throughout Italy, and no one was paying off debts, he decided to appoint some arbitrators, who would estimate the value of the debtor's fixed assets and movable properties at pre-war prices, that is, to pay the creditor.He believed that this was the most suitable method, on the one hand, it eliminated or allayed the fear of the general cancellation of debts that often follows war or civil strife.On the other hand, it maintains a good reputation for the debtor.He also rehabilitated those who had been convicted of bribery under the Pompeian law during those extraordinary times, when Pompey had a bodyguard of legionaries in the capital, after the magistrates and tribunes had brought it to the assembly. Zhaoxue regained their original rights. At that time, they had only one day of trial, and a group of judges heard the testimony, and another group of judges voted to close the case.Just because these people had shown Caesar at the beginning of the civil war that they were willing to serve him if he needed it, he thought that since these people had served him, they should be regarded as those who had contributed.He decided that their vindication should also come from the resolution of the Citizens' Assembly, and should not be regarded as an act of his own grace.He wanted to ensure that on the one hand, he would not be seen as ungrateful where he should be rewarded, and on the other hand, he would not be seen as arrogant, robbing the power of the Citizens' Assembly to grant amnesty.

2.It took him eleven days to accomplish these tasks, and to preside over the Latin Festival and all the election meetings.Then he relinquished his duties as dictator, and left the capital for Brundisium.He has ordered twelve legions and all the cavalry to go there.But he found that the ships there, even if squeezed as hard as they could, could only carry fifteen thousand legionnaires and six hundred cavalry.This was the only obstacle preventing Caesar from ending the war quickly.Even these troops which could be boarded were not sufficient in number, many had been lost in all those wars in Gaul, and the long march from Spain had reduced a large number, Apulia and Bron The disease-ridden autumn near Dicium, moreover, debilitated the whole army fresh from the most healthy regions of Gaul and Spain.

3.Pompey took advantage of the whole year's absence of war and interference from the enemy to accumulate troops, from Asia and the Cyclades Islands, from Kokula, Athens, Pontus, Bithynia, Syria, Cilicia, Fat Nikki, Egypt and other places collected a huge fleet.He also had large numbers of ships built everywhere.He has extorted large sums from all the kings, princes, and local chieftains of Asia and Syria, and from the free cities of Achaia, and has forced the tax-paying societies of several provinces under his control to pay him large sums. . 4.He gathered together nine legions of Roman citizens: five from Italy, which he had brought from the other side of the sea; He called them "twin legions"; one was drawn from the veterans of Crete and Macedonia, who had settled in those provinces after being dismissed by the previous commander; Collected by the consul Lentulus.In addition, he distributed among the various legions as reinforcements large numbers of men from Thessaly, Boeotia, Amia, and Epirus.Among these he inserted some who had served under Antony.Besides these, he was looking forward to the arrival of two legions from Syria with Scipio.He had archers from Crete and Lacedaemon, from Pontus and Syria, and other countries, numbering three thousand.At the same time there were two battalions of stone archers of 600 men and 7,000 cavalry, among whom were 600 Gauls brought by De Giotarus; Cortis, five hundred men, came in the same number from Thrace, and sent his son Sadara with him; and two hundred men from Macedonia, led by Laskipolis, Is a very brave man.Pompey the younger, with his fleet, brought from Alexandria an army of five hundred Gabinius, all Gauls and Germans, whom Aulus Gabinius left there as King Ptolemy's guard.He also gathered eight hundred men from among his own slaves and shepherds.Thacondarius Castor and Domnilaus provided three hundred Gallo-Greeks, the one with his own troops, the other with his son.Two hundred more were sent from Syria by Antichus of Comagne, whom Pompey paid him handsomely, and many of them were archers on horseback.To these Pompey added some hired, some Dardani and Bessi acquired by his power and friendship, also Macedonians, Thessalians, and others from other countries. In this way, people from other ethnic groups and other countries added up the above-mentioned number.

5.He has collected a very large quantity of grain from Thessaly, Asia Minor, Egypt, Crete, Plane, and other regions; The town was wintered in order to prevent Caesar from crossing the sea.For this purpose he distributed his fleet all over the coast.Pompey the Younger was in charge of the Egyptian fleet, Decimus Leilius and Gaius Triarius in charge of the Asiatic fleet, Gaius Cassius in charge of the Syrian fleet, Gaius Marculus and Gaius Copponius in charge of the Rhodes fleet, Scribonius Libo and Marcus Octavian in charge of Libnia and Achaia fleet.However, the defense of the entire coast was handed over to Marcus Bibulus, who was in charge of the overall situation, and the highest command power was concentrated in his hands.

6.As soon as Caesar arrived at Brundisium, he addressed the soldiers, telling them that since their toil and danger were almost at an end, they should now leave their slaves and their baggage in Italy, and embark lightly. in order to get more soldiers on board for all that could be gained from victory, from his generosity.They shouted in unison, begging him to give any order he wished, and whatever he gave they would carry it out wholeheartedly.On January 4th, the anchor was lifted and sailed.Seven legions were on board, as has been said above.Arrived on land the next day.Fearing that the other ports were occupied by the enemy, he unloaded all his troops at a quiet anchorage called Pallest, between the Crownia Reef and other dangerous places, and one ship would No damage.

7.Lucretius.Vespillo and Minuccius Luhens were anchoring at Oricum with eighteen Asiatic ships, which they commanded under the orders of Decimus Lelius.Marcus Byblos remained at Cocula with a hundred and ten ships.But Luhens and Vespiro did not have confidence in their own strength, and dared not sail out of the port, although Caesar had only twelve ships in total to guard the coast there, and only four of them were decked. .Bibulus' ships were in disarray, and the sailors were scattered in twos and threes, too late to arrive on time.For no news of Caesar's coming had reached those regions till the fleet of Caesar could be seen on the continent.

8.The soldiers were all unloaded, and the ships were pursued by Caesar that night to Brundisium, so that the rest of the legions and cavalry could be brought over again.Caesar sent his lieutenant, Henfius Callenus, to take charge of the work, with orders to bring the legions over as soon as possible.But the ships left land too late, missed the evening wind, and met disaster on their way back.Bybulus, having received the report of Caesar's arrival at Cocula, had hoped to meet some of the ships full, but he found them when they were empty.When he came across them in a group of about thirty ships, he, being annoyed at his own negligence, took out his wrath on them, and burned them all, crew and captain, in the same fire. among.He hoped that the harsh punishment would scare off the others.When this work was done, he filled with his fleet all the anchorages and all the coasts from Sa to the port of Curricum, and placed the garrisons with great care.Even though it was mid-winter, he was still on guard on the ship. He would never relax his duties because he was afraid of suffering, and he would not sit around waiting for reinforcements. He only wanted to meet Caesar once in a while...

9.When the Libnian fleet left Irilykum, Marcus Octavian came to Salona with the ships under his command.There he stirred up the Dalmatians and some other barbarians, and made Isa abandon its friendship with Caesar.However, no matter whether he used promises or threats, he could not shake the Roman citizen organization in Salonai.He laid siege to the city.However, the city is well defended by its terrain and a hill.Still the Roman citizens were quick to build wooden towers and use them for their defense.But they were few in number, and the wounded were multiplying, and unable to resist any longer, they took a last-ditch measure, freed and armed all their grown-up slaves, and cut off the hair of all the women's heads as casts. Bowstring on board.Knowing their determination, Octavian built five camps to surround the city, and began to plague them with blockades and attacks at the same time.People in the cities are ready to endure anything, and the question of food in particular distresses them.For this reason, they sent envoys to Caesar, begged him for help, and said: "The rest of the difficulties they try to rely on their own strength to hold on to the scalp."After a long time, when the protracted siege had caused Octavian's troops to relax their vigilance, they took advantage of the enemy's departure at noon and assigned children and women to the walls so that the enemy would not see the daily work. They all stopped suddenly, and together with the newly liberated slaves, they rushed to the nearest camp of Octavian.After taking it, take another with the same blow, and from there attack the third, the fourth, until the last one is taken, drive the people out of all the camps, and kill them. A large number of men were lost, and the rest, including Octavian himself, were forced to flee to the ships, and this brought an end to the siege.By this time winter was approaching, and Octavian, feeling hopeless of taking the city after such a great loss, withdrew to Dyrrakium, to Pompeii.

10.We have already mentioned that Lucius Viblius Luhens, Pompey's superintendent of works, had twice fallen into the hands of Caesar, once at Coffinium and again in Spain, both was released by him.Considering the favor he had given him, Caesar thought that Viblius was the most suitable person to take the letter to Pompey, and he also knew that Viblius was a person who could influence Pompey.The gist of the message he brought was as follows: Neither of them should be stubborn anymore, they should lay down their weapons, and stop taking risks.Both sides have already suffered heavy losses, enough to serve as lessons and examples, reminding them to be wary of future disasters.Pompey had been expelled from Italy, had lost Sicily, Sardinia, and the two Spanish provinces, and in Italy and Spain had lost a total of 130 battalions of Roman citizen troops.For Caesar's own side, Curio was dead, the army in Africa was disastrous, and so many surrendered on the island of Curicta.Therefore, let them cherish themselves and their country; their loss can already be used as a lesson to let them know how powerful fate is in war.Now, it happens that both sides are full of confidence, and it seems that the two sides are evenly matched, and it happens to be the only time to make peace. As long as fate favors one of the two, the one who seems to have the upper hand will not Those who will accept the conditions of peace and who are confident that they will win the overall situation will no longer be satisfied with equal shares with others.Since they failed to reach a peace agreement before, they should now go to Rome to ask the Senate and the people for it.At the same time, it would certainly satisfy both the country and themselves, if both parties at once, at a popular assembly, vowed to disband their armies within three days.Moreover, if both sides lay down the armies and allies which are now traditionally backed, each will necessarily be content with the verdict of the people and the senate.To make these proposals more likely to be endorsed by Chonpei, he said that he could disband all his armies.

11.After landing at Cocula, Viblius considered it no less important to inform Pompey of Caesar's sudden arrival, so that he could take appropriate measures, than to discuss these proposals of Caesar.So he traveled day and night, changing his mounts from town to town, in order to gain speed in order to catch up with Pompey and report to him that Caesar was coming.Pompey was now in Cantavia, on his way from Macedonia to the winter camp at Apollonia and Dyrrakium.But new circumstances disturbed his steps, and he began to hasten the long detour to Apollonia, lest Caesar should occupy the coastal towns.But Caesar, having landed his troops, set off on the same day for Orikum.When they arrived there, Lucius Torquatus was presiding over the city's guard by order of Pompey, and a Parthenian force was stationed there.He closed the gates and tried to hold the town.But when he ordered the Greeks to mount the walls and take up arms, the Greeks refused to fight against the party officially representing the authority of the Roman people, and the residents even prepared to welcome Caesar into the city of their own accord.Desperate for all aid, he opened the gates, and dedicated himself and the town to Caesar.Caesar saved him.

12.After recovering Orikum, Caesar rushed to Apollonia without delay.On hearing him, Lucius Stabrius, who was in charge there, began to carry drinking water into the acropolis, build fortifications on its side, and take hostages from the Apollonians. .They refused to give it to him.They would neither shut the gates of the city against the consuls, nor make their own decisions contrary to those already made by the people of all Italy and Rome.When Stabrius learned of their wishes, he stole away from Apollonia.The inhabitants sent messengers to Caesar to take him into the city.Following their example, Pelis, Amantea, and the other neighboring towns, and all Epirus, sent messengers to Caesar, promising to obey his commands. 13.But when Pompey heard what had happened at Oricum and Apollonia, he was troubled for Dyrrakium, and traveled there day and night.At the same time, it was rumored that Caesar was approaching, and Pompey's army was greatly alarmed.As he hurried on day and night without rest, all the soldiers from Epirus and the neighboring country deserted, and many abandoned their weapons, so that the march looked like a flight.But when Pompey stopped near Dyrrakium, and ordered a lot of land to camp, his men were still terrified, and Labienus was the first to stand up, swearing that he would never abandon Pompey, determined to Live and die with him, no matter what fate will bring him.The rest of the lieutenants also took the oath, followed by the legion commanders and centurions, as well as the entire army.When Caesar found that his way to Dyrrakium had been taken first by Pompey, he stopped his haste, and pitched camp by the river Appsus in the territory of the Apollonians, so that the cities to whom he owed There is a guarding garrison and security is guaranteed.He resolved to stay there till the rest of the legion came from Italy and wintered in camp.Pompey did likewise, and pitched his camp across the Appsus, and brought all his army and allies there. 14.Callenus loaded up his legions and cavalry at Brundisium, as Caesar had commanded him, and sailed with all his legions and cavalry on board.While he was sailing a little farther from that port, he received a letter from Caesar informing him that all the ports and coasts were under the control of the enemy's fleet.Knowing this, he returned to the harbor and recalled all his ships.One of them, since it was a private ship and had no soldiers on board, disobeyed Callenus's order and continued to go its own way.When it drifted to Orikum, it was attacked by Bibulus. No matter he was a free man or a slave, he even refused to let go of those who were underage, and killed them all after torture.In this way, at this moment, a crucial chance decided the safety of the whole army. 15.As has been said, Bibulus was at Oricum with his fleet, and just as he shut off the sea and ports from Caesar, so he shut himself off from all the land in that region, because Caesar occupied Along the entire coast, defenders are deployed everywhere.He had no way of getting firewood or water, or getting his boat to anchor.All necessaries were so wanting, and the situation so difficult, that they were obliged to supply them with firewood, water, and other provisions which had to be brought from Corcyra by transport ships.Even a storm forced them to collect the night dew on the leather coverings of the ships.Yet they endured all these difficulties patiently and quietly, considering it their duty not to expose the shore and not abandon the docks.Or in this difficulty of which I speak, when Libo and Bibulus were united, they stood on board with Marcus Achilius and Statius Murcus, their lieutenants. ——one presided over the defense of the city, and the other commanded the defenders on land—one had a conversation and said: If they are given a chance, they have very important things to discuss with Caesar.To these words, they added a few more emphatic words to make it clear that they were trying to broker a peace talk.At the same time, they also asked for a truce.This request was granted.Because the request they put forward seemed to be very important, and the lieutenants knew that Caesar was looking forward to it, and it seemed that the task entrusted to Viblius had already taken some shape. 16.At this time, Caesar was setting out with a legion to recapture towns further afield, and, as his food supplies were insufficient, to try to raise them, he was at Butrotum, a town opposite Kokula. .There he learned of the demands of Libo and Bibulus from the letters of Achillius and Murcus, and he left the legions and returned himself to Orikum.When he was there, they were invited to confer.Libo came out and explained Bibulus, saying that because he was very hot-tempered, and because he had a personal enmity with Caesar when he was a magistrate and a magistrate, he avoided this interview, lest his quick-tempered would interfere with a matter of great hope and great interest.He said: He himself, now and in the past, has always been eager to resolve the matter and to lay down his arms, but he is powerless in this matter, because the decision made at the meeting is to put the power of commanding the war And everything else is up to Cooper.But now that they had clarified Caesar's request, they would send envoys to Pompey, who, with their encouragement, would carry on the rest of the talks himself.At the same time, he demanded that the armistice agreement must be extended until the envoy returned from Pompey, and neither party should harm the other.To these words he added a few words in defense of their cause, and of their army and allies. 17.At that time Caesar thought it unnecessary to reply to these words, and we do not now think that there is sufficient reason to record them for posterity.Caesar's demand was that he should be allowed to send his messengers to Pompey, and ensure their safety, either by themselves taking up the matter, or by taking the messengers and sending them to Pompey.As for the armistice, the war is now being waged in two separate ways: they intercept his ships and reinforcements with his fleet, and he keeps them from drinking water and land.If they wanted him to relax, they themselves had to relax on the Watch Coast.If they persisted, so did he.Nevertheless, peace talks can proceed despite the intransigence of the two sides in these areas, and these things will in no way hinder it.Libo neither accepted Caesar's emissaries nor guaranteed their safety, but threw the whole thing upon Pompey.There was only one thing he fought for with all his might, and that was an armistice.When Caesar knew that all his talk was to avoid present danger and weariness, and that no hope could be drawn from him, nor terms of peace, he returned to the question of further operations. 18.Bibulus was prevented from landing for many days, and was attacked by a severe disease caused by wind, cold and overwork. He could not get treatment, and he was unwilling to give up his duties. At last, he could not resist the power of the disease.After his death, the position of commander-in-chief was not replaced by one person, but each commanded his own fleet according to his own decision.After the agitation caused by Caesar's sudden arrival subsided, Viblius waited as soon as he thought fit, and Libo, Lucius Lucius, and Pompey, who were customary to consult with him on matters of extreme importance, Diophanes, all drawn to his side, began to make Caesar's proposals.As soon as he opened his mouth, Pompey interrupted him to stop him from going on, saying: "If it is believed that I have been able to preserve my life and my citizenship because of the gift of Caesar, I will not let you go." What are they for, I am from Italy, and if, at the end of the war, I am considered to have been brought back to Italy, there is nothing to change that opinion." In these cases, Caesar was Still, he struggled to find other ways to negotiate a peace, according to those who participated in those conversations. 19.Between Pompey's camp and Caesar's camp there was only the river Appsus, and the soldiers often talked among themselves, and the interlocutors agreed not to shoot arrows at this time.Caesar sent his lieutenant, Publius Vathinius, to the banks of the river, and incessantly shouted and promoted the points which seemed most likely to promote peace.He said: For the sake of peace, even the exiles and pirates in the forests of the Pyrenees are allowed to send representatives, but is it not possible between citizens?Especially since all they have to do now is try to prevent citizens from killing each other.He spoke a great deal in the tone of entreaty which a man should use when he pleads for his own safety and for the safety of all, and the soldiers on both sides listened to him in silence.A reply came from the other party. This was Olus Varo. He promised that he would come to the meeting the next day and discuss with them how the envoys could arrive safely and how to raise their demands.Therefore, a specific time was arranged for this purpose.When they came next day, there was a large crowd on both sides, and they all had great hopes for the matter, and it seemed that all had been singled out for peace.Titus Labienus stepped out of the crowd, and began to speak with Vathinius, and quarreled, but never about peace.Suddenly, arrows and stones flew from all directions, interrupting the conversation.Vatinius fled under the cover of the soldiers' weapons, but many were wounded, among them Cornelius Balbus, Marcus Protius, Lucius Tiburtius, some centurions and soldiers.At this moment, Labienus cried out: "Stop talking about reconciliation, there will be no peace until we go back with Caesar's head." 20.At this moment, the magistrate Marcus Caelius came out to complain for the debtor.As soon as he took office, he put his seat close to the chair of the capital justice Gaius Treponius, declaring: If someone comes to evaluate the property value made by the arbitrator set by Caesar in Rome Complaints and repayment methods, he will help.But, from the fairness of the decree, and the generosity of Treponius, who thought that in such troubled times the enforcement of the law should be merciful and gentle, no complainant could be found.It is unavoidable for ordinary people to use poverty as an excuse to complain about themselves or the disasters of the whole era, or to excuse that they have difficulties in selling their property, etc. If you don’t want to let go of your own property, then you must be extremely heartless and shameless, and you will not do this, so no one can come forward to make such a request.This shows that Caelius himself is more unreasonable than those who have a personal interest in such matters.And, lest it should appear that he had accomplished nothing in the scandal which he had begun, he introduced a law that the debt owed should be amortized over six years without interest.
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