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Chapter 7 Volume II 21-44

Civil War 凯撒 10319Words 2018-03-21
twenty one.Caesar called a meeting in Corduba, and he thanked all parties.To the citizens of Rome, for their efforts to keep the city in his hands; to the Spaniards, for driving out the garrison; to the Gades, for thwarting the plans of his enemies, Preserved his liberty; thanked the legionaries and centurions who went thither to guard, that by their valor the Lindos might more firmly carry out their plans.He absolved the apportionment which the Roman citizens had promised to Varro for the common use, and he returned property to those who, he knew, had been subject to confiscation by speaking too freely.After distributing rewards to some towns, public and private, he filled the rest with good hopes for the future.After he stopped for two days in Corduba.Set off to Gades.He ordered that the money and souvenirs taken from the temple of Hercules and stored in private homes should still be returned to the temple.He also appointed Startus Cassius in charge of the province, and gave him four legions.He himself took with him the ships which Marcus Varro had built, and those which the Gardes had built at Varro's order, and reached Tarakor a few days later.Nearly all the emissaries from every part of the province of Spain had assembled there to await the arrival of Caesar.After awarding some state prizes in the same manner, publicly or privately, he left the yonder and traveled overland to Napo, and from there to Massilia.There he learned that a bill had been passed for the establishment of a dictator, and he had been nominated to be dictator by the magistrate Marcus Lepidus.

twenty two.The massilians were exhausted by all kinds of disasters.Food had become extremely scarce, added to the fact that he had been defeated twice at sea, and had repeatedly failed to break out of the siege, and had to fight a very serious plague, which was caused by a long siege and a change of habit. for they now live on stale millet and rotten barley which have been stored up in the past and stored in state warehouses for unexpected needs like the present.Their towers were destroyed, and a great part of their walls fell, and with no possibility of further aid, either from the neighboring provinces or from the army, as they had heard that it had fallen into the hands of Caesar, they resolved to Surrender, no more falsification.But a few days ago, as soon as Lucius Domitius discovered the intentions of the Massilians, he had already managed to prepare three ships, two of which were for his friends and staff, and he boarded the third. , out of the sea in the midst of the storm.Some of the ships, which Brutus had commanded to guard the port every day, saw them and immediately lifted anchor and pursued them. Among them, the ship in which Domitius himself was sailing was trying to escape, and was assisted by the wind. out of sight.The other two boats were very frightened when they saw the ships of our army coming in a concentrated manner, and sailed back to the port again.The Massilians moved their arms and machinery out of the city, their ships into and out of the harbors and wharves, and handed over the money in their treasury, as they were ordered.When these matters were settled, Caesar spared the city, more for its reputation and antiquity than for anything else worthy of it, to come to him for mercy.He left two legions garrison there, sent the rest to Italy, and set out himself to Rome.

twenty three.About the same time, when Gaius Curio sailed from Sicily to Africa, he at first despised the force of Publius Attius Varus, and only received from Caesar Two of the four legions took two legions and 500 cavalry, and after spending two days and three nights on the voyage, they arrived at a place called Anquilaria.This place is about twenty-two miles from Clupea, and has a good anchorage in summer, surrounded by two headlands.Lucius Caesar the Younger was waiting for him near Clupea with ten ships which had been laid up near Utica after the pirate war, and Publius Attius ordered In this war, they were specially repaired.When Lucius Caesar the Younger, astonished at the number of our ships, fled from the sea, and left one of his armored triremes on a nearby beach. , leaving it alone, fled by land to Hadrumetum.The city was defended by Gaius Considius Longus with a garrison of legions.The other ships of Lucius Caesar the Younger also retreated to Hadrumetum after his escape.Marcius Lucius, the treasurer, pursued him with the twelve ships that had been brought out from Sicily to escort the merchant ships, and when he saw the ship remaining on the shore, he dragged it down by a cable, and with his The fleet returned to Curio together.

twenty four.Curio sent Marchius with the fleet first to Utica, and he himself drove there with the army. After two days' journey, he arrived at the Baghdad River.Leaving Gaius Caninius Rebilus, his lieutenant-general, and the two legions there, he himself led the cavalry to inspect Cornelius' old camp, which was believed to be the A great place to camp.It was a ridge that went straight into the sea, steep and rugged on both sides, but the side facing Utica had a gentler slope.If you go in a straight line, it is only a little more than three miles away from Utica, but on this road there is a stream, and the sea water rushes in along its course for a long way, making this place a vast swamp. , if one were to circumvent it, one would have to make a six-mile detour before reaching the town.

25.After inspecting these places, Curio also looked at the camp of Varus, which connects the city wall and the town, is near the gate of the city called the Gate of Beliga, and is well protected by the local natural terrain. The town of Nautika itself, on the other side, is a theater located in front of the town. The base of this building is very large, and the road leading to the camp is compressed and narrow.At the same time, he also saw that the road was crowded everywhere, full of people who carried goods in vehicles and animals, all because of this sudden accident.They moved from the four villages to the city.He sent his cavalry to plunder these things as trophies.At the same time Varus sent from the city 600 Numidian cavalry and 400 infantry to protect these treasures.These troops had been sent by Yuba Guoyu to Utica as reinforcements a few days ago.Juba had an old friendship with Pompey, but he had an enmity with Curio; for Curio, when he was tribune of the people, had suggested a law that would confiscate his kingdom.When the cavalry came over, the Numidians could not stand our first charge, and having killed about a hundred and twenty men, the rest retreated to their camp near the city.Meanwhile Curio, as soon as his warship arrived, ordered a proclamation to be sent to some two hundred merchant ships anchored in the port of Utica, saying that he would not sail immediately to the old camp of Cornelius. Ships are all treated as enemies.As soon as this announcement was made, they all weighed anchor and departed from Utica, and sailed where they were ordered to go.This provided the army with an extremely abundant supply of all kinds.

26.After this action, Curio returned to his camp on the Baghradha, to the applause of the whole army, and consecrated him the title of "Imperator."The next day he led his army to Utica, and pitched camp near the city.Before the fortification of the camp was completed, the cavalry who was serving as sentry sent him a letter saying that a large number of infantry reinforcements sent by King Yuba were advancing to Utica.At the same time, a large puff of smoke can already be identified.After a while, the forward of this unit can be seen.Surprised by the unexpectedness of this event, Curio sent his cavalry forward to block their blows, and hold them back.He himself immediately recalled the legionnaires from the fortifications and set them up for battle.At the beginning of the cavalry battle, before the legions had time to fully line up and stand on their feet, all the king's reinforcements were already in a hurry and panicked. In addition, they had no troops when they marched all the way, and they had no vigilance. Then they were defeated and fled. Although all the cavalry quickly fled into the city along the coast with almost no losses, a large number of infantry were killed.

27.The next night two Marcian centurions, with twenty-two men belonging to the company, escaped from Curio's camp and went to Attius Varus, whom they told him I don’t know if it’s the truth in my heart or fabricated to cater to Varus—because we are often willing to believe what we expect, and we often hope that others will feel the same when we feel—in short, they Assure him that the whole army was at odds with Curio, and that it would be of great help if they could be brought where they could see each other face to face, and where they could talk.Enticed by their words, Varus led his legions out of the camp early the next morning, and Curio did the same, and both sides formed their formations with only a small valley between them.

28.Among Varus's troops was Sextius Quintilius Varus, who, as has been mentioned, passed through Cophenium.After being sent away by Caesar, he came to Africa.The legion that Curio brought across the sea was exactly what Caesar received from Coffinium in the previous period. Except for a few centurions, even the original company organization remained unchanged.Quintilius, taking advantage of this opportunity of approaching conversation, began to go round Curio's army, begging the soldiers not to renounce the allegiance they had made to Domitius and to himself when he was treasurer. Take an oath, leave it behind, and take no arms against the same fate that had passed in the previous siege.Those who have suffered together should not work for those who have insulted themselves as traitors.A few words were also added to excite their greed for reward, telling them what reward they might expect from his generosity if they would follow Attius and him.When he spoke these words, Curio's army was all still.In this way, both sides led back their armies.

29.But in Curio's camp there was great terror in the hearts of all.This kind of terror has rapidly increased because of people talking about it in various ways.Each imagined a scene out of thin air, and added to what he had heard another person say with his own apprehension.As the story spreads from the man who first vindicated it to many, each in turn to others, the event finally seems to be convincingly many.They said it was a civil war, and they belonged to people who had the right to do whatever they wanted, to go with whoever they wanted.These legions, which had not so long ago belonged to the enemy, were in the custom of awarding rewards, and even Caesar's generosity was not surprising.Those local towns also took refuge in their own side, and people also came from Marci and Pellini, and those who defected the night before were such people.In the camp, some of the soldiers suggested drastic measures, some of the soldiers said ambiguous words that were taken out of context, and some reports were even fabricated by those who wanted to be seen as more violent than their accomplices.

30.For this reason, a meeting was held.Curio discusses the whole situation.There were some opinions that an attack on Varus' camp should be attempted by all means, since in the present morale of the army it would be extremely inappropriate to be idle.Finally, they said, it was better, at any rate, to try their luck in battle by courage than to suffer heavy punishment for treachery and deception by their own men.Others suggested retreating to the old camp of Cornelius at the third watch, so that after a relatively long interval, the soldiers' mood would return to normal, and at the same time, if any accident happened, they would retreat to the old camp of Cornelius. Going to Sicily will also be safer and more convenient because of the large number of ships.

31.Curio disapproved of both plans, considering the one too lacking in courage, the other too far-reaching, to think of a most ignominious escape on the one hand, , also had to fight a decisive battle.He said: On what basis can we believe that the enemy's camp, which is so perfectly defended by fortifications and terrain, can be assaulted in one fell swoop?And what would be the result if we stopped after we had suffered heavy losses in the attack? Is it not the success of battles that endows a general with the favor of an army, and the defeat that makes him hate him? What could moving camps signify but ignominious flight, general despair, and demoralization?We must never make the shameless suspect that others do not trust them very much, nor let the bold know that they are afraid of them.For our fear makes the latter more presumptuous and the former less enthusiastic.He also said: As for the report we heard about the separation of the army, I personally believe that it is purely a rumor, at least not as serious as everyone imagined.Even if we could prove that it is completely true, and conceal it as if it did not exist, it would be much better than proving them by our own hasty actions. Aren't the weaknesses of the army just like the wounds of the body? Is it necessary to forbear to reveal so as not to make the enemy more hopeful? However, some people actually added that we should set off in the middle of the night. I believe that this will open the door for those who want to do evil.Shame and fear are the forces that restrain such audacity, and night is the most weakening of this restraint.I was neither a bold and unsure man who decides to attack and enter the camp, nor a man full of fear and discouragement.Therefore, I think that it is advisable to try all kinds of methods first. I believe that I will make a decision that is generally consistent with yours on the current situation. 32.After disbanding the meeting, he called a meeting of the sergeants.He reminded them how, at Coffinium, Caesar had relied on their zeal, how by their love and their strength Caesar had brought the greater part of Italy into Caesar's possession.He said: All the autonomous towns, one after another, imitated you and learned from your example, so that Caesar regarded you as the most friendly people, and the enemy as the most hated people. This is not without reason. .Although Pompey never failed on the battlefield, the precedent you set made him have a premonition and escaped from Italy.But Caesar, because of your loyalty, entrusts to you me, his closest friend, and Sicily and Africa, the two provinces without which the capital and Italy could not be defended.And yet there are those who want to take you from us, and what could be more desirable to them if they can at once corner us and brand you as perfidious, or if you desert those who think you are People who are all thanks to you, go to those who think you have ruined them, and those who are angry, can think of you worse, don't you really hear Caesar in Spain? Achievement, two armies were routed by him, two leaders were defeated by him, and two provinces were recovered by him, all within forty days of Caesar appearing before the enemy.Could it be that those who were unable to resist when they were full of strength can resist now that they are broken? Besides, are you people who have decided to follow Caesar when the success or failure is uncertain? When collecting the rewards of working in the public service in the past years, will you turn around and follow those who have failed? They say that they were abandoned by you and betrayed by you.They also mention your oath of allegiance, and I ask: Did you reject Lucius Domitius, or did Domitius reject you, and was he not just as you were preparing for him? Did he abandon you when you went through fire and water? Didn't he secretly hide from you and escape to survive?When you were betrayed by him, was it not Caesar's magnanimity that saved you? Speaking of oaths, when he abandoned his duties, surrendered his commanding power, and fell into the hands of others as a private person and a captive. How can you be compelled to obey it, when they propose to you a new and unheard-of obligation: to disregard the oaths which now bind you, and to return to the Go up the invalid oath.Perhaps, I believe, you are in favor of Caesar, and are only somewhat dissatisfied with me?I don't want to recount how much I've done for you, until now, it's been less than I'd like to do, and less than you expect, but soldiers always go to the end of war You yourselves no longer doubt what will now end, you who seek the reward of your labors.As for my hard work, or the good luck which has so far manifested in the development of the situation, why not also mention it, are you not satisfied that I have brought the army here safe and sound, without losing a single ship, Are you dissatisfied that I smashed the enemy's fleet at one blow when I first arrived here, are you not satisfied that I won the cavalry battle twice in two days, are you not satisfied with my one blow? Over two hundred fully laden ships were intercepted from the enemy's ports and hiding places.Are you dissatisfied with forcing the enemy into a situation where he can no longer be supported by land or sea? Do you rather turn your back on such good luck and such a good commander to love the disgrace of Coffinium, the flight of Italy, The capitulation of Spain, and the foreshadowing of the war in Africa? For me, I would have been called a soldier under Caesar, but you call me "Imperator"? I regret this, I can return the kindness you gave me, and restore my original name, lest it seem that you gave me honor, which would become an insult instead. 33.The soldiers were so moved by this speech that they interrupted him again and again while he was speaking, as if they were deeply distressed at being suspected of being unfaithful.As he left the meeting, they all encouraged him to take courage and not hesitate to go into battle, to test their loyalty and bravery.When the hearts and minds of all were completely transformed by this action, Curio, with their unanimous consent, resolved to fight at the first opportunity.The next day, he took the troops out of the battalion and arranged them according to the combat formations where they had been formed a few days ago.Varus also led his army out without hesitation, so as not to miss the opportunity to lure our soldiers or fight in favorable terrain. 34.Between the two armies, as mentioned above, there is a valley. Although it is not very big, the hillside is rough and steep.Both sides were waiting to see if the enemy tried to cross so that they could fight on more level ground.Meanwhile, on the left flank, the whole cavalry of Publius Attius, with many light soldiers sandwiched between them, could be seen running down the valley.Curio sent his cavalry and two battalions of Marukines against these men.At their first charge, the enemy cavalry were unable to resist, and could only drive back to their comrades.The light soldiers who came with them were left behind, surrounded by our army and killed.The whole army of Varus turned their ranks, and watched their troops annihilated in flight.Caesar's lieutenant, Rebilus, was specially brought from Sicily because Curio knew he had a lot of combat experience.At this time, he said: "Curio, you see that the enemy is already panicked, why are you still hesitating and not taking advantage of this great opportunity?" Make sure to take it to heart and follow him.On the one hand, on the other hand, he was the first to rush forward in front of everyone.The valley was very rugged, and the people in front would have been unable to climb up without the help of their comrades. However, Attius' troops had already been panicked by their own fear, the fleeing and annihilation of their comrades, and they did not expect it at all. If you want to resist, you think you have been surrounded by cavalry.Thus, before a single weapon had been thrown, and before our army could approach them, the whole army of Varus broke off and retreated to the camp. 35.During this flight Fabius the Pelinian, a centurion of the lowest rank in Curio's army, was the first to overtake the ranks of the galloping enemy, and he kept calling Varus' name Look for him, look as if you are a soldier under his command, and have something to advise or report to him.When Varus stopped to look at him, hearing someone continually calling him, and asked him who he was and what he wanted, he struck Varus with a blow of his sword on his bare shoulder, and nearly killed him.Varus avoided danger by raising his shield to block the blow.Fabius was surrounded and killed by soldiers who were nearby.The gates of the camp were crowded with clamorous deserters, the roads were blocked, and more people died here unhurt than in battle or flight, and were almost driven out of the camp. .Many people ran non-stop all the way and fled directly into the town.But not only the terrain of the place and its fortifications prevented our troops from taking the camp, but also the fact that Curio's men, who were out to fight, had no tools with which to attack the camp.Curios, therefore, led his army back to camp, without losing any of his men, except that Fabius, while among the enemy some six hundred were slain, and a thousand wounded.After Curio's departure, all these people, and many who pretended to be wounded, withdrew from the camp into the town in fear.Seeing this, Varus also knew the panic of the soldiers, so he left a trumpeter and a few tents in the camp, pretending, and led the army back into the town quietly after the third watch. 36.The next day Curio decided to lay siege to Utica, closing it with a rampart.In the town, there were a large number of residents who were not used to war because they had been in a peaceful environment for a long time, there were Uticans who were very friendly to Caesar because he had given them certain benefits, and there was a group of people of all kinds. Roman citizens, the previous battles aroused great terror among them.Now, therefore, they began to speak openly of the capitulation, and persuaded Publius Attius not to ruin the fortunes of all by his own obstinacy.While these things were taking place, messengers from the king of Yuba arrived, reporting that he had come with a large force and encouraging them to defend the town.This made their flustered mood firm up. 37.The same news was brought to Curio, but for a moment he could not be convinced of it, for he was so sure of his good fortune.At this time, the news of Caesar's success in Spain was also brought to Africa by messengers and letters.Encouraged by all these things, he thought the king could do nothing to him.But when he found from a reliable source that Guoyu's troops were only twenty-five miles from Utica, he left his fortifications and retreated into the old camp of Corylius.There he began to gather corn, fortify the camp, gather timber, and at once sent a message to Sicily ordering that the two legions there and the rest of the cavalry be sent to him.No matter in terms of local terrain or fortifications, this camp is very suitable for prolonging a war. In addition, it is close to the sea, has abundant water and salt, and has already obtained a large amount of water from a nearby salt field. A lot of salt has accumulated.Because there are many trees, there will be no lack of wood, and the four fields are full of grains, and there will be no shortage of grain.Therefore, with the unanimous consent of his subordinates, Curio prepared to wait for the arrival of the rest of the troops for a protracted war. 38.While these things were being arranged and his measures were approved, he learned from some who had fled from the town that King Yuba had been called Returning to his own country, he sent his steward Sapra to Utica with a small army.Curio believed these words recklessly, changed his plan, and decided to use a battle to decide the outcome.His youth, his wildness, his previous successes, and his confidence in winning all played a large role in this decision.Prompted by these factors, he sent all his cavalry at dusk to the enemy camp on the Baghradha, which was being presided over by Sapra whom he had heard beforehand.But the king followed behind with all his troops, and the place where he camped was only Liuluohuang away from Sapra.The cavalry sent by Curio completed the journey at night, when the enemy was unaware and fell too hard to guard against.The attack was launched.For the Numidians camped here and there, in the old barbarian manner, without definite ranks, and the cavalry attacked them while they were scattered in their sleep, and killed a large number of them, many of them in the They fled in all directions in panic.When this work was done, the cavalry turned back to Curio, and brought him the captives. 39.Curio set off with the whole army in the fourth watch, leaving only five battalions to guard the camp.When he drove six miles away, he encountered cavalry and learned about the situation.He asked the captive who was in charge of the camp on the Baghradha, and replied that it was Sapura.He was in a hurry to complete the journey, so he didn't ask any other questions, but turned around to the companies beside him and said, "Soldiers, don't you see that these prisoners are speaking exactly like Do the fugitives say the same thing? The king is not here, and he has sent a small force, not even a few cavalry. So hurry to the spoils, to glory, now at last we can consider Your reward and your due." The cavalry's achievement was indeed remarkable in itself, especially since they were so small in number compared with the Numidian army.Even so, the triumph was exaggerated in their narratives, as people often gush about their accomplishments.In addition, many spoils of war were displayed, and the captives and horses were also brought to the people for display.Therefore, the more time is delayed, the more it seems to be postponing victory.As a result, the eagerness of the soldiers just met Curio's expectations.He ordered the cavalry to follow him hastily forward, so as to attack the enemy as soon as possible when they were in a panic after fleeing.But his men, marching through the night, could no longer keep up, stopping here and there.Even this did not reduce Curio's drive to move forward. 40.Yuba received Sapra's report on the night battle, and sent to Sapra the two thousand Spanish and Gaul cavalry who had always served as his personal guard, and the part of the infantry that he trusted the most. Come.He himself followed slowly with the rest of the army and sixty elephants.Sapra suspected that Curio sent cavalry ahead and he would follow behind, so he deployed his cavalry and ordered them to pretend to be afraid, retreat gradually, and retreat, and warned them: Give the call to battle when the time is right, and tell them what to do as the situation demands.As for Curio, the impressions he had so far reinforced his own conviction that the enemy was fleeing, and he led his army down from the heights to the plain. 41.When he advanced a great distance from that place, his legion, weary from the journey, halted after twelve miles.Sapura gave orders to his men to line up the troops, and he himself began to run up and down among the ranks, encouraging them, but he kept his infantry far away, using them only for momentum, but Send cavalry to charge.Curio, who was not helpless, encouraged his men to place all their hopes on bravery.At the same time, although the infantry of our army is very tired, although the cavalry is small in number and exhausted, they still have the enthusiasm and courage to fight.But there were only two hundred cavalry in our army, and the rest were still halfway. At this time, their rush there made the enemy on the other side untenable, but they could neither pursue the fleeing people very far, nor Unable to drive his horses hard, the enemy's cavalry began to surround our army from both wings, and trampled our army from behind.Whenever individual battalions left the main body to rush out, the vigorous Numidians retreated quickly to avoid our attack, and then rushed to surround them while our army was returning to their own ranks, and cut off their road. The retreat of the army.Therefore, whether they stand in place to maintain the formation, or rush up and risk everything, it seems that they are equally safe.The enemy was constantly increasing in number because the king was sending reinforcements, but our army was gradually unable to support because of fatigue. Surrounded by enemy cavalry.Thus those who despair of their safety, as men often do at the last moment of their lives, either mourn their own death, or entrust their parents to perhaps fate He saves the survivors of the disaster.There was panic and grief everywhere. 42.Curio saw that everyone was in a panic, neither his own encouragement nor his appeal could be listened to. He thought that in this miserable situation, there was only a glimmer of hope for safety.He ordered them all to hurry and occupy the nearest hills; to transfer the troops there.But even these hills have been preempted by some cavalry sent by Sapra.Our army really fell into a desperate situation, some of them were killed by the cavalry while fleeing, and some of them fell down, although they were not injured.Gnaeus Domitius, commander of the cavalry, surrounded Curio with a small number of cavalry, begging him to flee for his life, and hastening to his camp, promising himself never to leave him.But Curio declared that he would never return to Caesar after he had lost the army that Caesar had entrusted to him in trust.And just like that, he died in battle.A few cavalry escaped from the battle, but those mentioned above who stayed behind to give their horses a breather, saw our whole army scattered from afar, and retreated safely to their camps, while the infantry were overwhelmed. 43.After learning of these circumstances, Marchius Luhens, Curio's treasurer who remained in the camp, encouraged his men not to be discouraged.They begged him earnestly to transport them back to Sicily by sea.He consented, and ordered the officers in charge of the ships to bring their boats close to shore by evening.But everyone was terrified. Some said that Yuba's army was approaching; These things.Others suspected that the enemy fleet would attack them immediately.So, in the panic of everyone, everyone is thinking about himself.Those who were on the warship, hurriedly sailed the ship out.Their escape stimulated the owners of those merchant ships.Only a few small boats came to be called and waited for orders, but on such a crowded shore, everyone tried to squeeze out of the crowd and climb into the boats first, so that some boats were overloaded with too many people. heavy and sunk.The rest are afraid of repeating the same mistakes, and hesitate to approach them. 44.As a result, only a few soldiers and Roman citizens, either by friendship and compassion, or by virtue of being able to swim, were rescued on board, and all reached Sicily safely.The rest of the army sent centurions as emissaries by night to Varus to surrender to him.On the next day Yuba, seeing these battalions outside the town, declared that they were his trophies, and ordered that most of them be killed, but a few were singled out and sent to another country.Although Varus also complained that Yuba had damaged his credibility, he dared not resist.Yuba himself rode into the town, accompanied by some senators, among them Servius Sulpicius and Licinius Damasipus.He simply arranged what he was going to accomplish in Utica, and after a few days, he returned to his home country with the entire army.
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