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Chapter 6 Volume 2 1-20

Civil War 凯撒 7931Words 2018-03-21
1.While these things were in progress in Spain, Gaius Treponius, the lieutenant in charge of the attack on Massilia, was left to advance towards the city from two places, building earthen embankments, shield chariots, and towers.One was very near the port and docks; the other was near the city gate, entered by the roads from Gaul and Spain, facing the sea that joined the Rhodanus.Almost three-quarters of the city of Massilia is bordered by the sea, and only the remaining one-quarter has access to the land.This remaining section, the side leading to the Acropolis, is also well protected by natural terrain and a very deep valley, and must be sieged long and hard.To complete the work, Gaius Treponius summoned a great number of cattle and men from all the province, and ordered branches and timber to be brought in.When these things were ready, he built a wall eighty feet high.

2.But in the city, a large amount of materials needed for war have been accumulated from a very early age, and the number of combat machines is so large, and their power is so great that no shield vehicle woven of branches can stop them .Added were twelve-foot wooden poles with iron heads, fired from gigantic crossbows, which, after penetrating four hedges, could be driven back into the ground.Therefore, the aisle formed by shield carts must be connected together with one-foot-thick wood and covered on the top, and the materials used for construction must be passed forward one by one under it.Walking in front of it was a large round shield sixty feet long to cover the level ground, also made of various tough woods, covered with various kinds of shields that could resist the fire and stones thrown by the enemy. thing.But the vastness of the project, the height of the walls and towers, and the number of war machines delayed all progress.In addition, the Albigians often broke out from the city to attack, and threw fire on the walls and towers of our army.These were easily repelled by our troops, and the breakouts suffered heavy losses, driving them back into the town.

3.At the same time Lucius Narcidius, sent by Pompey, with a fleet of sixteen ships, a few of which had brazen mouths, came to the aid of Domitius and Massilia. people.Taking advantage of Curio's unforeseen and inadvertent defense, he crossed the Strait of Sicily and sailed his ships into the port of Messana.When the leaders and senators of the place were scattered by the sudden fright, he snatched a boat from their docks, added it to the rest, and turned and sailed straight for Massilia. .He sneaked a small ship ahead to inform Domitius and the Massilians of his arrival, and endeavored to encourage them to fight Brutus' fleet again with his reinforcements.

4.After their last defeat, the Massilians took from the docks about the same number of old ships, repaired them, and equipped them with painstaking care.As for oarsmen and sailors, there were plenty of them.To these they added fishing boats, all covered with covers to protect the oarsmen from thrown weapons.These ships are equipped with bow hands and combat machinery.Having thus equipped their fleet, they boarded their ships with as much vigor and confidence as they had in their former battle, encouraged by the cries and cries of all the old men, women, and girls, beseeching them to save their dying country.Because according to the weakness common to human nature, strange and novel things often arouse people's great confidence or strong terror, and this is the case, the arrival of Lucius Nasidius, Fill the city with great hope and anticipation.As soon as the wind was favorable, they sailed out of the port, and sailed to Tauroas, where Nasidius was, a fortress belonging to the Massilians, and there they put their ships in order, renewed their morale, and prepared for battle. , and exchanged action plans.The right wing was given to the Massilians, the left to Nasidius.

5.Brutus also hastened there with a fleet already increased in number.For, besides those built by Caesar at Arellat, he had added to this fleet the six ships which he had taken from the Massilians in the last few days, and furnished them with every requisite. .He encouraged his men, told them to despise these enemies, saying that they were defeated by him when they were intact, and now they were defeated.Then, full of confidence and energy, they went up to deal with the enemy.From the camp of Delebonius, and from all the higher places, it was easy to see the city, and all the young men who remained in the city, and all the older men, were seen with their wives. Sons and daughters together, in public places, on watch-towers or city walls, stretch out their hands to heaven, or rush to the temples of the immortal gods, and prostrate themselves before their gods, and implore them for victory.There was not one among them who did not feel that his whole fate depended on the outcome of the day's battle.For all the young men of their noble families, all the important persons, old and young, who were called or begged, were all on board, and if any misfortune befell them, they saw that there was not even money left to try again. up.On the contrary, if they win, no matter relying on their own strength or external forces, they believe that the city can be preserved.

6.As soon as the battle was over, the Massilian was not only impeccable in valor, but he remembered the admonition he had just heard from his countrymen not long ago, and when he went into battle, he could not forget that; Chance to try your own destiny.They also believed that the fate of those who risked their lives in battle was but a small step ahead of that of other citizens, and that once the city fell the rest would follow in the same way. of.When our ships gradually distanced from each other, the superb skills of the helmsman and the flexible maneuvering of the ship had the opportunity to show their talents. Whenever our ship seized the opportunity, we stretched out the iron hook to catch their ships , they will come from all directions to rescue those who are in trouble.And there are Albigians united with them. These people are not afraid of fighting with our army, and they are not much worse than us in terms of bravery.At the same time, a large number of arrows and stones sent out from the small boats hurt many people when our army was unable to take care of it and was in a hurry.There were two triremes on the other side, and suddenly they saw the ship on which Dekimus Brutus was riding-this was easily recognized from its flag-and rushed straight towards it from two opposite sides.But as soon as Brutus discovered their intentions, he immediately avoided them at an extremely fast speed, really only one step ahead.The two enemy ships, as both sides rushed towards them with all their strength, collided with each other so violently that they were both severely damaged, and one of them was shattered because of the broken bow.Seeing this, the nearest ships of Brutus' fleet to that side rushed forward, and while they were immobilized, sank both ships.

7.But Nasidius' ships were useless, and were soon withdrawn from the battle.Neither the circumstances of their homeland nor the admonitions of relatives and friends could prompt them to take the greatest risks.In that fleet, therefore, not a single ship was lost.Of the Massilian fleet, five ships were sunk, four were captured, and one escaped with Nasidius' fleet.They all rushed towards Spain.One of the remaining ships was tracked back to Massilia to report the news.When it approached the city, all the people came out in large numbers to inquire about the situation, and when they learned of the situation, they all mourned so much, as if the city had been occupied by the enemy at that very moment.Even so, the Massilians continued to make other necessary preparations for the defense of the city.

8.The legionnaires in charge of the right part of the fortification saw from the constant attacks of the enemy that it would be of great help if a tower of bricks could be built under the city wall as a defensive blockhouse and shelter.They originally built it low and small to protect against sudden attacks.When they want to retreat, they retreat to that side, and if there is a superior force to attack, they defend in it, and they also start from it to repel and pursue the enemy.Each side of it is thirty feet long, and the walls are five feet thick.But at last, as experience is the teacher of all men's actions, they found, after much thought, that they would be of great use if they could be raised to the height of ordinary towers.It is constructed in the following manner.

9.When such towers were built to a height where floors could be laid, they built the floors to the walls, and put the tops of the shelvings on which they were erected.They are all hidden inside the outer wall, and they are not allowed to protrude outside, lest the enemy set fire to it.They built small bricks on the slab as high as the shield carts and barricades could cover, and on top of it, not far from the outer wall, they put two crossing wooden beams to cover the tower. A wooden roof rests on top of them.Place the joists at right angles to the beams and machine nail them in place.They made the joists a little longer, protruding a little out of the outer wall, so that they could hang a curtain over them to keep out and screen the outside while they built the wall under the wooden roof of this one story. for attack.On top of this wooden roof, they spread bricks and mortar to prevent the enemy from arson and damage them, and put a layer of matting on top of it to prevent the weapons thrown by the enemy from penetrating the floor, or from across the aircraft. stones, will break bricks.They also made three screens, woven of ship's cables, as long as the tower wall, and four feet wide.Hang exactly on the three sides of the tower facing the enemy, and fasten to that part of the joist that protrudes.It was the only defense they had learned from experience elsewhere to defend themselves against spear or mechanical penetration.But when this part of the tower that has been completed has covered and protected fortifications, and they no longer worry about the enemy's attack with weapons thrown, they moved the obstacles to other projects.They began by using the levers on the first floor, and slowly raised the whole roof of the tower, as far as the shade would allow.They hid under this cover again, built walls with bricks, and used levers to clear a place for new work.When they think that a floor slab can be laid, the ends of the joists are still concealed in the outer wall like the first floor.From this level they raised a higher level of slabs and blinds.Just do it the same way, safely.Build it up to six storeys without harm or danger, and leave holes for shooting arrows in the brick walls where they think fit to use the ballista.

10.When they felt confident that they could defend all the fortifications around it in the tower, they resolved to build a shelter of timbers two feet thick, sixty feet long, extending from the tower to the enemy's towers and walls.The form of the tent is as follows: First, two beams of the same length are placed on the ground at a distance of four feet from each other, and on top of them are erected pillars five feet high.These pillars, they held them together with slightly sloping rafters.The layer of planks on which the roof of the shed is erected rests on these camphor logs.The rafters are laid with two-foot-thick wood, nailed with iron bars and nails.On the outer layer of the roof of the shed and on the outer edge of the girders, they nailed four-finger square wooden roof slabs to hold the bricks laid on top of the stern.When it is tilted in this way and the rows are neatly set up, and the rafters are added to the beams, tiles and plaster are laid on the roof of the shed, so that there is no fear of fire that may be thrown from the city wall.The bricks are also covered with animal skins, so that the water flowing towards them from the water pipe will not deliquesce the bricks.Another layer of woven matting was covered over the hides so that they would not be destroyed by fire or stones.The whole work was carried on under the cover of shield vehicles until the tower was fully completed, and then, before the enemy noticed it, it was covered with rollers--a device used on ships--to put it on the ground. Push it all the way to the enemy's watchtower and connect with this building.

11.The townspeople, terrified by this sudden calamity, lifted up with levers as many large stones as they could get their hands on, and rolled them down straight down over the walls, toward our huts, but Because of the strong material of the wooden beams withstood this impact, the pitched roof of the shed made everything that fell on it roll down.Seeing this, they changed their method again, and set fire to the cask of pine and resin, and rolled it over the wall towards the shed.However, as soon as they landed, they immediately rolled to one side, fell from the tiles, and were pulled away by the long poles and forks protruding from the fortification.At the same time, under the cover of the shed, some soldiers were using crowbars to dig out the stones that laid the foundation of the bottom wall of the enemy's watchtower.The shelter was covered by our soldiers from the brick tower with arrows and empty planes, and the enemy was driven away from the city walls and watchtowers, preventing them from having the opportunity to freely defend the city walls.Finally, the watchtower adjacent to the shed, because many stones under the base of the wall were pried away, part of them suddenly collapsed, and the rest of them also leaned over.The enemy fears that the city will be plundered.They rushed out of the city empty-handed, without weapons, with ball belts on their heads, and stretched out their hands to the lieutenants and the army. 12.As soon as this novelty occurred, all combat operations ceased.The soldiers left the battle one after another, and came to inquire and understand the situation with great concern.When the enemy came to the lieutenant general and the soldiers, they all knelt at their feet and asked them to wait until Caesar came.These people said: They saw that their city had been captured, the siege was completed, and their towers had been dug down, so they gave up resistance. If Caesar arrived, they would not obey, but immediately Just rob them, and nothing will come out to stop them.They pointed out that if the watchtower had completely collapsed, there would be nothing to stop the soldiers of our army, but they could only be allowed to flood the city to loot and destroy it.They are very learned men who are now saying these and similar things with great sorrow and sorrow. 13.The lieutenants were moved by these things, and withdrew the soldiers from the fortifications, stopped the siege, and only left some sentries on the fortifications.After a merciful truce was concluded, all looked forward to Caesar's arrival.Whether it was on the city or our soldiers, they stopped firing arrows and spears. Everyone relaxed their vigilance and concentration, as if the great success had been accomplished.Because Caesar once earnestly warned Trebonius in a letter, asking him to avoid letting the city be captured by force, lest the troops hated their rebellion, and because they had received their contempt, plus Long-term toil, as it has always threatened, has set out to kill all the young people in the city.They were all displeased with the difficulty with which Trebonius prevented them from rushing into the city, thinking that it was because of his resistance that they had not captured the city. 14.But the enemy has no credibility at all, and is only watching for the time and opportunity to use deceit and tricks.After a few days of hugging, our army has relaxed and no longer concentrates. They took advantage of the noon of our army to disperse some people, and some people rested on the fortifications after long-term labor. All weapons were put aside and covered. When he got up, he suddenly rushed out from the city gate, riding a strong tailwind, and set fire to our army's fortifications.The wind carried the flames everywhere, and in a moment almost all the walls, barriers, rear vehicles, towers, and combat machinery were involved, and they were ablaze before we could see how they would catch fire.Our army was taken aback by the sudden disaster, and hastened to pick up the weapons that could be found at hand, and everyone else rushed out of the camp.They attack the enemy.But arrows and arrows shot down from the walls prevented them from pursuing the retreating enemy.The enemy retreated below the city walls, where they boldly set fire to the tents and brick towers.Thus, through the treachery of the enemy and the swiftness of the wind, many months of labor were ruined in an instant.The next day the Massilians made another attempt in the same way, and again they rushed out with greater confidence in the same gale, to another tower and battle wall, and set fire on a still greater scale.However, although our soldiers completely relaxed their fighting spirit last time, the accident that happened the day before has sounded the alarm for them, and they have made all defensive preparations. Therefore, after killing many of them, they forced the rest Back to the city with nothing. 15.With the soldiers still more enthusiastic, Trebonius set about collecting and repairing what had been lost.For the soldiers grieved to see their hard work and preparations come to such an unfortunate consequence, that the armistice was perfidiously broken, and that their valor became the butt of ridicule.But there was no place left where they could get wood for their ramparts, for all the trees in Massilia's territory, near and far, had been felled and carried away.They proceeded to build a new type of rampart, never heard of before, consisting of two brick walls six feet thick, and these walls were covered with wooden coverings, about as wide as the previous materials of wood, earth, etc. The piled up barriers are similar.In the gap between two walls.Wherever it seemed necessary, or where the wood was not strong enough, stakes were added in the middle, and cross braces were placed to strengthen the fortification.Wherever the slabs were placed, a hedge was laid, and the hedge was again covered with a coat of plaster.There are covers on the soldiers' heads, brick walls on the left and right sides, and barriers on the front. No matter what materials are needed for this construction, they can be transported in without danger.The work was quickly completed, and the cunning and valor of the soldiers soon made up for the damage of their long toil.Doors were also left for the sortie where they thought fit in the walls. 16.When the enemy sees that the fortifications that they hoped could not be rebuilt after a long period of time have been completely repaired in just a few days of work and toil, they know that there is no chance to play tricks and break out, and they will never again There is no way to use arrows to hurt soldiers or set fire to destroy fortifications.And they could see from what they had done that their whole city, as far as it could be approached by land, might still be surrounded by ramparts and towers, so that they could no longer stand on their fortifications. For the defense, because our army built the siege almost on the top of their walls, the arrows and stones can be fired almost by hand, and the fighting machinery they themselves hoped for is completely useless because of the distance. They had the opportunity to fight equally with my army on the walls and in the towers, and they knew that in bravery they could never match our army.They put forward the same conditions of surrender as they had done before. 17.At the beginning of the turmoil, Marcus Varro heard what was happening in Italy in far Spain, and he was quite skeptical about Pompey's victory. When talking about Caesar, he often used a very friendly tone.According to him, although he had an appointment with Gnaius Pompey and was appointed as his lieutenant-general, which obliged his allegiance to Pompey, there still existed an intimate relationship between him and Caesar, and he It's not that he doesn't know what the duties of a trusted lieutenant are, nor does he not understand how powerful he is, and how much the entire province loves Caesar.In conversation after conversation, he often confides these opinions without favoring any party.But later, when he knew that Caesar had been dragged under the city of Massilia, and could not escape; that the troops of Petreius and Aphranimus had joined forces, and that a large number of allied troops had come to reinforce them, Hoping for more to come, looking forward to it; and hearing that the whole province near Spain is well united; and later hearing that Caesar's army had a food shortage at the city of Ilerda.Afranius wrote to him, telling him these things with exaggeration and embellishments, and he followed his chances as fortunes shifted. 18.He set about conscription throughout the province, and when he had filled the two legions, added thirty battalions of Confederate battalions to them.He collected a large quantity of grain, and sent part of it to the Massilians, and part to Afranius and Petreius.He ordered the inhabitants of Gades to build ten ships of war, and arranged for others to be built at Hispalis.He moved all the gold and silver treasures from the Temple of Hercules to the city of Gades, and sent six battalions from the province to guard them, and handed over the responsibility of guarding Gades to Rome. The knight Gaius Galonius, a friend of Domitius, was sent by Domitius thither to receive an inheritance on his behalf.He stored all the public and private weapons in Gallonius' house.Varro himself lashed out against Caesar, often declaring in his speeches that Caesar had lost several battles, and that many soldiers had defected from him to Afranius.He said that he had received these messages from reliable sources by reliable messengers.By this means he forced the frightened citizens of Rome to agree to pay him 190,000 sestecs in cash, 20,000 pounds of silver, and 120,000 bucks of wheat for public use.He also imposed heavy taxes on some countries that were considered friendly to Caesar, and stationed troops on their side.He also convicted some private persons, and confiscated the property of those who expressed their dissatisfaction with the state, whether they had uttered a word or made a long speech.He forced the whole province to swear allegiance to him and to Pompey.When he learned of what was happening near Spain, he set about preparing for war.His plan of battle was this: he was going to go to Gades with his two legions, and store there also all his ships and provisions, for he had learned that the whole province was on the side of Caesar. On this side, he believed that on an island, if food and ships were prepared, it would be easy to delay the war.Though many urgent matters called Caesar to return to Italy, he resolved not to leave any embers of war in the two Spains, for he knew that Pompey had been in near Spain, and that he had many old friends there. . 19.Thus, after sending two legions into far Spain under the command of Quintus Cassius, the tribune of the people.He himself, with six hundred cavalry, marched hastily, and issued a proclamation in advance, ordering all the officials and chiefs of the states to come to Corduba on the appointed day to meet him.This proclamation was carried throughout the province, and there was not a single state that did not send some of its elders to Corramba on the appointed day, and not one Roman citizen of any esteem did not come on that day.On the same day, the Roman expatriate organization in Corduba voluntarily closed their city gates against Varo, set up sentries on the walls and in the watchtowers, and called those who arrived there at the right time "colonial troops". ’’ two battalions stayed with them to guard the town.About the same time, the Carmos, the most powerful of all the states in the province, rose of their own accord to drive away the three battalions of garrisons that Varo had sent to camp in their fortress, and closed the gates to resist. them. 20.For this reason, Varro hurried on the road even more, in order to get to Gades as soon as possible with his two legions, so as not to be cut off from marching or crossing the sea to the island.But he found that the province's love for Caesar was so enthusiastic that he received a letter from Gades before he set out to march, saying: As soon as the elders of Gades heard Caesar's announcement; The commanders of the battalions there agreed unanimously to expel Gallonimus from the city, and to preserve the town and the island to Caesar.Once the plan was confirmed, they informed Galonimus to leave Gades while he could escape safely. If he didn't leave, they would take countermeasures.Galonius had already left Gades Town because of fear.Knowing this, one of Varo's two legions, the one called the "Local Legion", turned from Varo's camp, and Varo could only stand aside and watch blankly.They withdrew to Hispales, where they camped in its marketplace and colonnade, and did no wrong.The Roman citizens who lived in that district were very appreciative of the event, and each was kind enough to take them to entertain them in their homes.Just when Varro, startled by these events, sent word that he was going to change his itinerary, and go to Italia, when he received a report from his own people that the gates of that city were also closed to him.At this time, when it was true that all roads were blocked, he sent to Caesar to tell Caesar that he would surrender the legions under his command.Caesar sent Sextus Caesar to his side, ordering Varro to hand over the army to him.After surrendering the army, Varro went to Corduba to Caesar, and after very honestly giving Caesar the public account to his face, handed over to him all the money in his possession, and confessed that he had How much food and ships, where.
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