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Chapter 5 Volume 1 61-87

Civil War 凯撒 9778Words 2018-03-21
61.While these things were disturbing the enemy, Caesar, lest his cavalry should go round and round the bridge when he sent out, resolved to select a suitable place, and dig several drainage ditches thirty feet wide, and through them, Siko Part of the water from the River Rees was diverted, creating a place in the river where it was possible to ford.When the work was about to be completed, Afranius and Petreius were horrified, for Caesar's cavalry were much stronger, and they feared that all food and harvest would be cut off, and they resolved to evacuate the place. , moving the war to Cortiberia will take place.Another factor also contributed to their adoption of this plan, namely, among the two hostile tribes, those countries which had been conquered by Pompey in the last battle with Setorius on the side, although Pompey is now absent. , but they still find his fame and power awe-inspiring; as for those countries that are friendly to Pompey, they love him because of the great favor he bestows on them, and the name of Caesar is unknown among the barbarians. Therefore they expected to receive a large reinforcement of infantry and cavalry from these people, and to delay the war on their part until the winter.Having decided on this plan, they ordered that all the ships on the Hiberus River be collected and gathered in Octogesa, a town on the Hiberus River thirty miles from their camp. inside.Just over there on the river, they ordered the ships to be joined together, and a pontoon bridge built, and two legions to be crossed over the Sikoris, to guard their camp with a rampart twelve feet high.

62.Scouts reported this to Caesar.Through the intense labor of the soldiers, he worked day and night to clear the river. Now that the project has progressed to such an extent that although there are still difficulties and dangers, the cavalry has been able and dared to wade across the water, but the infantry has only The shoulders and the upper part of the chest were out of the water, and the water was too deep and too fast for them to ford.Even so, the news that the bridge over the Hiberus was about to be completed arrived at about the same time as the ford-place on the Sikoris was found.

63.This makes it all the more necessary for the enemy to hasten his way.Therefore, having left the two battalions of the Confederates at Ilerda, they crossed the Sikoris with their whole force, and joined the two battalions of the legions which had been crossed a few days before.Caesar had no other means of dealing with them than to harass and hinder the ranks of the enemy with his cavalry, for he crossed his own bridge and had to make a considerable detour, so that the opponents could reach Helena by a much shorter road first. Bellus River.He sent his cavalry across the river, and when Afranius and Petreius moved out at the third watch, they suddenly appeared in his rear, and the great mass circled up and began to obstruct and delay the other. Hurry up.

64.Just after dawn, from the high ground connected to Caesar's camp, you can see the opponent's rear army being violently attacked by our cavalry. Several battalions turned around and joined the onslaught and were forced to retreat, but then turned around again and resumed pursuit.Throughout the camp, soldiers gathered in twos and threes, complaining about letting the enemy slip away from them and prolonging the battle unnecessarily long.They ran to the centurion and the legionaries and begged them to go and assure Caesar that he would spare them their toil and danger, and that they were fully prepared and able and dared to pass where the cavalry forded. the river goes.Their enthusiasm and their pleas moved Caesar, and though he was apprehensive about throwing his army into such a white-capped river, he still felt that he should try it and see if it could be done.Thus, he commanded from all the various Centuries.Pick out all those who are weak and seem to be unable to support them, and leave them with a legion to guard the camp.He brought the rest of the legion out of the camp, leaving their baggage behind, and having laid out a great number of horses up and down the river, he led the army across.A few of the soldiers were swept away by the force of the current, and the cavalry immediately picked them up and rescued them ashore. None of them died.After the army passed safely, he began to arrange the troops in three defensive formations.The enthusiasm of the sergeants was so high that even though they went around a circle, walked an extra six miles, and spent a lot of time in crossing, they caught up with the enemy who set off from the third watch before the ninth quarter of the day.

65.Afranius, who was with Petreius from afar, saw this sight, and was greatly astonished at this unexpected event, and drew their troops up to a high ground, and arrayed themselves.Caesar rested his men on flat ground so that they would not go into battle from fatigue.When the enemy tried to get back on the road, he caught up again and harassed them.The other party had no choice but to stop and set up camp earlier than planned, because they were approaching the mountain, and five miles ahead, there was a rough and narrow road waiting for them.They were eager to enter this country, in order to avoid Caesar's cavalry, and at the same time to place a garrison in a narrow place to prevent our army from advancing, so that they themselves could pass the army without danger and terror. Beluth River to go.That's what they're trying to do, and they're going to do it by all means.But because of the fighting all day and the hardships of the journey, they postponed the matter until the next day.Caesar also camped on a nearby hill.

66.About midnight, some enemies who ran out of the camp for water were captured by our cavalry, and Caesar learned from them that the leaders of the opponent were quietly pulling the troops out of the camp.Knowing this, Caesar ordered the order to be issued, and shouted "ready to go" in accordance with the custom in the army.The enemy, alarmed at the cry, stopped their march, lest they should be intercepted by our troops in the middle of the night, be forced to fight among their baggage, or be blocked in a defile by Caesar's cavalry, leaving their troops in their camp.The next day, Petreius sneaked out with a small number of cavalry to scout the terrain, and Caesar's camp also came out to do the same. Lucius Decidius Saxa was ordered to come out with a small number of people to observe One trend.The reports brought back by both sides said that there was a flat road five miles ahead, and then there was a rugged mountainous area beyond.Whoever occupies those narrow roads first can stop the enemy's advance without much effort.

67.At a council of war Petreius and Aphranimas discussed the question of what to do with the departure.Most of the people were in favor of starting at night, to get to those narrow roads before the other party knew it.Others, because of the shouts that had erupted in Caesar's camp the night before, took it as evidence in their argument that it was impossible to leave the camp secretly.They said: Caesar's cavalry patrolled everywhere at night, and all places and roads were blocked by them.Moreover, fighting at night should be avoided, because in civil war, when soldiers are panicked, their own terror is the first thing that comes to mind, and the oath of allegiance to the gods is often forgotten.But in broad daylight and in full view, his shame would have worked, not to mention the presence of the centurion and legion commanders in person.Soldiers are accustomed to stick to their duties under the constraints of these circumstances.All in all, all this means that they should rush out in the daytime, and even if they suffer some losses, the place they want to take can be taken without harming the main force.This opinion prevailed at the meeting, and it was decided to start at dawn the next day.

68.After reconnaissance of the terrain, Caesar led the whole army out of the camp at dawn, and he himself led the troops, not taking the ready-made road, but advancing in a wide circle.For the road to Hiberus and Octogesa was blocked from one side by the camp of the enemy.Caesar's soldiers were forced to advance across huge and difficult valleys, and in many places there were cliffs blocking the way. Soldiers had to pass weapons one by one. One lifted up and climbed up.But none of them rejected such hardships, for they thought that if they could cut off the enemy from the Hiberus, and cut off their supply, all these hardships would be over.

69.At first the soldiers of Afranius ran triumphantly out of the camp to look at our army, and chased after us with ironic remarks, saying that our army was forced to flee and return to Iran because of the lack of necessities. Lerda goes.Because we are going in a different direction than we expected, it seems that we are going in the opposite direction.Their leaders also praised their resourcefulness for not letting their men run out of the camp.What helped them to form this idea was that they saw that our army was marching without livestock and equipment, and they believed it all the more because they could no longer bear the famine.But when they saw that our troops were gradually turning to the right, and the vanguard had already outflanked the area where they had camped, they suddenly came to their senses.At this time, no one, because of his slow nature or desire to avoid labor, thought it unnecessary to rush out of the camp to deal with it at once.Then there was a cry: Take arms, and all the army, except a few battalions left to guard the camp, set out together, and went straight from the road to the Hiberus River.

70.The competition was all about speed, to see who would occupy the valley and the mountains first, but the ruggedness of the road hindered Caesar's army, and Aphranius' army was harassed by Caesar's cavalry following behind.As far as Afranius' troops were concerned, things had come to such a desperate situation that they themselves would have escaped danger had they reached the hill to which they were running first, but the whole army's baggage, and The battalions that remained in the camp could no longer be saved, for they were cut off by Caesar's army; there was no way of supporting them.Caesar completed the march first, and found a plain behind the huge strange rock. He faced the enemy with his troops and arranged them in battle formation.Just as the rear was being harassed by our troops, Afranius saw that there were enemies in front of him. He found a hill beside it, and took his troops up to stop.From there he sent four battalions of soldiers to the highest of the mountains as far as could be seen, and ordered them to hurry there and take it.He intends to drive the whole army there with him, and then change his route and go along the ridge to Octogesa. When the leather shields advanced there from an oblique direction, Caesar's cavalry found them , they launched an attack on these battalions, they couldn't hold back the cavalry's impact with their leather shields, and they didn't even hold on for a moment.

71.Now there is a good opportunity to succeed in one fell swoop.Of course, Caesar knew that an army would never persevere when it saw such a catastrophe and panic, especially because the battle would be fought in a flat and open place, and they were surrounded by me on all sides. Surrounded by cavalry.The people around urged Caesar in the same way.The lieutenants, the centurions, and the commanders of the legions all ran to him and asked him to go into battle without further delay.All the soldiers, they said, were perfectly ready; on the other hand, Aphranius had shown signs of shrinking from many things, for example, that he neither sent to rescue his men.They didn't leave the hill, and although they could barely block the attack of our cavalry, they huddled together, concentrated all the flags in one place, and ignored the ranks and troops.And they said: If Caesar's fear was the unfavorable terrain, there would still be a chance for him to fight elsewhere; for Aphranius would never stay on a hill, where there was no water, and he would surely run away. down. 71.What Caesar hoped was that it would be best to cut off the opponent's food supply without going through a battle, without casualties of his subordinates, and he could complete this great achievement.He thinks, even if the battle is finally won, why does he have to lose some of his men, why must these soldiers who have followed him so hard to risk their picks, and why should he try the unexpected What about fate?Especially for a general, the responsibility to win by stratagem is no less than that by the sword.Moreover, the sight of his fellow citizens who were bound to perish in the field inspired him to pity him, and he preferred to achieve his purpose if they were safe and unscathed.But Caesar's idea did not get the approval of the majority. The soldiers even publicly said among themselves that if such a good chance of winning was missed, even if Caesar wanted to fight next time, he would not be willing to fight.Caesar still insisted on his opinion, and retreated a little from the place, so as to relieve the terror of the enemy a little.Petreius and Afranius took advantage of this opportunity to return to the camp.Caesar set up guards on the mountain, blocked all roads leading to the Hiberus River, and then built fortifications for his camp as close as possible to the enemy camp. 73.The next day the chiefs of the other side, in great alarm, as all food aid and all hope of access to the Hiberus had been cut off, discussed other means of escape.At this time, there were still two roads to go: if they wanted to go back, they could run to Ilerda by one road; if they wanted to go forward, they could take the other road to Tarraco.While discussing these matters, someone came to report that their water-carrying troops were attacked by our cavalry.Knowing this, they densely arranged sentry posts composed of some cavalry and infantry of the Confederate Army along the road.Several battalions of legionnaires were also inserted in the middle.They started from the camp and built a wall that stretched all the way to the water intake. In this way, they could walk inside the fortifications when they fetched water, without having to be frightened or guarded.Petreius and Afranius divided the work, and went to distant places to complete the work themselves. 74.As soon as they left, the soldiers immediately seized the opportunity to talk freely. Everyone rushed out to ask each other who had acquaintances or fellow countrymen in our barracks, and found these people.First of all, they expressed their gratitude to these people because our army spared them when they themselves were panicking the day before yesterday, saying that it was because of our kindness that they survived.Secondly, they asked whether our commander was honest and reliable, whether they entrusted their lives to him, whether they found the right person, and they complained that they did not do this in the first place, but killed each other with their relatives and compatriots.Encouraged by these conversations, they again made our commander swear to spare the lives of Petreius and Afranius, lest it should be thought that they had betrayed them with evil intentions.If these things were guaranteed, they resolved to turn against and revolt immediately, and sent the first centurions as representatives to Caesar to make peace.At the same time, some of them invited their acquaintances to their camps, and some of them were brought to our army's camps by their acquaintances.For a moment, it seemed that the two camps had merged into one.Many legionary commanders and centurions rushed to Caesar to express their feelings to him.Some of the Spanish chieftains whom they had brought as hostages to camp with them did the same, asking among their acquaintances and old acquaintances who might be able to introduce themselves to Caesar.Even the young son of Afranius, through his lieutenant Sulpicius, interceded for his own and his father's safety.At this time.There was joy and congratulations everywhere, thinking on the one hand that he had averted such a catastrophe, and on the other that he had done it without hurting anyone.Everyone agreed that Caesar's leniency earlier had achieved great results, and his approach was unanimously praised by everyone. 75.When this news was reported to Afranius, he left the fortifications which had been started, and returned to camp.It seemed as if he was ready to accept whatever contingencies came his way and let them be.Petreius, not reconciled to resting there, armed his slaves, and with a guard of them and Spanish leather shields, a few barbarian guards, and the few entourages he always took with him for his own defense, caught him by surprise. rushed to the ramparts, interrupted the conversation of the soldiers, drove our soldiers out of the camp, and killed all who were caught.The rest of the people were frightened by the sudden danger, and immediately gathered together, wrapped their left arms in their cloaks, drew their swords, and resisted the leather shields and cavalry in this way, fortunately, it was very close to our barracks , they retreated all the way to the camp, and were covered by the battalions standing on duty at the gate. 76.When Petraeus had done this, he went through every company with tears in his eyes, calling every soldier by name, and begging them not to betray himself and their commander, Pompey, to the enemy for torture.Many people quickly flocked to the handsome tent.He made them all swear not to abandon or betray their own army and leader, and not to betray others' own ideas.He himself first swore by these words, and made Afranius to do the same, and then the legionary commander and the centurion, and then it was equally expedient to bring out the soldiers in centurions oath.They ordered that if anyone keep Caesar's soldiers.It must be handed over.Those who were handed over were all executed in the commander's tent in front of everyone.But most of them hid the Caesar's soldiers they received and sent them over the ramparts at night.Thus, the terrors inflicted by the leaders, the cruel punishments and the new oaths of fealty.For a while, all thoughts of immediate surrender were dispelled, the soldiers' minds were changed, and the original war atmosphere was restored. 77.Caesar ordered that the opposing soldiers who had come to his camp during the talks be carefully searched out and sent back.But among the legion commanders and centurions, there were some who voluntarily stayed with him.Later, he showed great respect for these people, and the centurions were restored to their original ranks, and the Roman knights were also reinstated as legion commanders. 78.Aphranimas' troop harvest is thwarted.It was also difficult to get water.The legionnaires still had some reserves of food, because they were ordered to bring food for 22 days from Ilerda. The Spanish leather shield soldiers and the allied army did not have many opportunities for them to prepare. He was not used to carrying heavy loads, so he ran out of food.As a result, a large number of them fled to Caesar every day.Their situation is very difficult.Of the two ways they conceived, it seemed the more convenient to go back to Ilerda, where they had left some provisions, and they believed they could make arrangements for the future.Tarraco was farther away, and they knew that they would inevitably encounter various accidents during such a long journey.When this plan was approved, they left the camp.Caesar sent his cavalry ahead to harass and hinder their rear, and he himself followed closely with his legions.There is hardly a moment when their rear army does not need to confront our cavalry. 79.Their manner of fighting was such that light battalions of infantry covered their rear, and many battalions remained on level ground.If sent to climb a mountain, the natural terrain of this place can easily protect them from danger, because those who climbed first are in a higher position and can protect the rest of the climbers.When they came to a canyon or a downhill road, those who went ahead could no longer help those who were behind, but our cavalry could throw their weapons at the opponent from a higher place behind them. The danger is great.Therefore, whenever they approached such terrain, they had only one method to use, that is, to order the legion to stand still, charge forward, drive away our cavalry, and after driving away, they immediately ran as hard as they could. Everyone drove down the valley together, and after crossing it, they stopped again on a high ground.They had no help at all from their own cavalry, who, though numerous, had been frightened in the previous battle, and asked the legions to hold them in the midst of their ranks for protection.During the march, it was impossible for any of them to slip away, and Caesar's cavalry would catch them all. 80.And so the battle went on.They advanced slowly step by step, stopping every now and then to lend support to their own men who happened to be fighting.When they advanced four miles, under the violent harassment of our cavalry, they chose a high ground to stop.When camping there, they only fortified on the side facing the enemy, and did not unload the cattle.When they saw that Caesar was setting up camp, building tents, and sending out cavalry to harvest, and their attention was distracted, they rushed out suddenly at about the sixth quarter of the day, hoping to take advantage of our army's cavalry going out and being attacked. When you procrastinate, start your journey.Seeing this, Caesar, who had rested his legions, pursued them, leaving only a few battalions to guard the baggage.He ordered the herding troops to follow up at the tenth quarter and called back the cavalry.It was not long before the cavalry resumed their daily duties on the march, striking their rear so violently that it nearly drove them into flight, killing many soldiers and even some centurions.Caesar's army was closing in on him, and his whole army was threatened. 81.Indeed, they had no chance to find a suitable place to camp, and they had no possibility to move on. They were forced to stop and camp in a place far from the water source and with extremely unfavorable terrain.But for the same reason as mentioned before, Caesar did not attack them, nor did he let his men pitch tents on this day, so that if the opponent slipped away suddenly, whether it was night or day, the whole army could catch up at any time.The other party noticed that their terrain was unfavorable, and worked overnight to expand the fortifications, and moved their camp back gradually.The next day, at dawn, I continued this work and spent the whole day on it.But the more their work went on, the farther the camp moved forward, and the farther it moved away from the water.As a result, the present disaster is complemented by another.On the first night, no one came out to fetch water. On the second day, except for a guard force left in the camp, the whole army came out to fetch water, but no one was sent to harvest it.Caesar preferred to frustrate them with these difficulties, forcing them to surrender.Instead of having to go through a battle to decide the outcome.Still, he surrounded them with a rampart and a ditch, so as to hold them back as much as possible should they burst out suddenly, a step he reckoned they would have to take.At the same time, due to the lack of forage and for the convenience of action, the opponent ordered all the animals carrying luggage to be killed. 82.Caesar spent two days working on these works and plans, and by the third day most of the work was nearly complete.In order to prevent the progress of the rest of the siege fortifications, at the ninth moment, the opponent brought out the army with an order and formed a battle formation in front of the camp.Caesar also recalled the legionnaires from the fortifications, ordered all the cavalry to gather and stand by, and set up a formation.Caesar, fearful of being seen as afraid of fighting, contrary to the wishes of the soldiers and the opinion of the masses, would do great harm, but for the same reasons already stated, he was very reluctant to fight.In addition, because the gap between the two armies is very narrow, even if they completely defeat each other, it will still not be of great help to the final victory.The distance between the camps of the two sides is only two miles, but two-thirds of the area where the two armies formed their battle formations has been occupied, and the remaining one-third is the open space for soldiers to come and go. The camps are too close to each other, and the party that fails to flee can retreat in quickly.For this reason, Caesar decided that if the opponent came to attack.Just go up to fight, and never attack the opponent first. 83.Afranius arranged the five legions in two ranks, and in the third rank the battalions of the Confederate Army came to meet them.Caesar's army was formed in three ranks, but four battalions from each of the five legions formed the first rank, followed by another three battalions from each legion, followed by three battalions from each legion. a battalion.Archers and stone archers were sandwiched in the middle of the ranks, and the cavalry closed the flanks.The arrangement of the armies of the two sides shows that both sides still maintain their original intentions: Caesar will never go out to fight unless forced; the other side only wants to hinder Caesar's construction of fortifications.The two sides procrastinated like this, maintaining the array until the sun went down, and then turned back to their respective camps.The next day, Caesar was about to complete the fortifications he had begun, while the enemy was at a ford on the Sikoris River to test whether they could cross it.Caesar, noticing this, sent a lightly armed Germanic force and some cavalry across the river, and posted sentries densely along the banks. 84.Finally, with all supplies blocked, their animals had been without straw socks for four days, and without water, firewood and food.They requested that negotiations should be held, and that, if possible, they should be held away from the soldiers.Caesar refused the request, but promised them that they could agree if they would negotiate in public.The son of Afranius was given to Caesar as a hostage.They came to the place appointed by Caesar.With both armies listening, Afranius complained that Caesar should not be angry that he and his soldiers wished to remain loyal to their commander, Pompey.But now they had done their duty to Pompey, for the want of everything had done them enough.Now he is besieged like a wild beast, unable to fetch water, unable to move around, the physical pain and mental shame are unbearable, so he admits that he has failed.He earnestly begged, if there was room for mourning, please think that the most severe punishment must be given to them.He said these words in a tone of great humility and humility. 85.To these words Caesar replied: Of all men there is none so unfit to play the part of complaining and begging.Everyone else has done their part.He Caesar himself, even under very favorable conditions, favorable terrain and favorable time, was still reluctant to attack, so that everything conducive to peace would not be damaged in the slightest.His soldiers, though themselves afflicted and their comrades slain, still defended and shielded those in their power.Even the soldiers of Afranius' own army came out of their own accord to try to make peace, because they considered it a matter in which the lives of all their comrades were at stake.In this way, the whole army was unanimously inclined to tolerance, and only their commanders changed their colors when they mentioned peace. They completely disregarded the generally accepted principles of negotiation and truce, and brutally killed inexperienced and tricked people.And thus they, too, suffer the fate that often befalls the most obstinate and haughty, and are compelled to return to pleading for what not so long ago they had despised.Now, not wanting to take advantage of either their humiliation or his own good fortune, he wanted something that could be used to increase his strength, but he wanted them to disband the armies they had been raising against him for so many years.They sent six legions to Spain, and raised a seventh there. They prepared so many and such a powerful fleet.They sent generals with great military experience.All these are just for this purpose.They were not intended to appease Spain, nor to be of any use in the provinces, which had been at peace for so long that no reinforcements were needed.All of this was aimed at him from the beginning.In order to deal with him, Caesar, a new political privilege was created. One person can stand at the gate of the capital and control the overall situation, and at the same time, he can control the two most valiant and warlike provinces for so many years without being able to reach himself; in order to deal with him, Caesar , also tampered with the promotion order of officials, and contrary to the past practice, those who were sent to the province were no longer the full-term magistrates and consuls, but those who were approved and recommended by a few of them; in order to deal with him, Caesar Some people with achievements in past wars were called to lead the army. Even the age is not enough to be a reason to refuse. For a man who has built merit, it is always good to have them come back with some honor, or at least not to be dishonored, and then disband the army.He had endured all this patiently in the past, and he would endure it in the future.Nor did he want to take their army and keep it for himself, though it would not be difficult to do so.He just hoped that no one else could keep it and use it against himself.Therefore, as he has already said, provided that they leave the province and disband their armies, as long as this is done, he will not harm a single person, and this is the only and the last condition on which he accepts the peace. . 86.For the soldiers of Afranius, who had expected the disaster they deserved, they were now graciously allowed to disband without asking.It was something that made them extremely satisfied and happy, as you can see from their expressions alone.When discussing the place and time of dissolution, and when there were disputes, these people standing on the wall all began to use shouts and gestures to express their demand for immediate dissolution, because if it is delayed to other times, they will be given whatever they want. Guarantees are not necessarily reliable.After a short dispute, it was decided that those who had families or estates in Spain should be sent away at once, and the rest would be discussed when they reached the Varus River.Caesar promised that no one would be harmed, and no one would be forced to take an oath of enlistment if he did not wish to. 87.Caesar allowed them to be fed from that time till they reached the Varus.He also promised them that any thing lost in battle to any one who is now in the hands of his own soldiers will be returned to the owner, and he will give the soldier money as compensation for these things after a fair discount.Later, when there were disputes among the soldiers of Afranius, they all voluntarily submitted them to Caesar for resolution.When the legionaries of Petreius and Afranius demanded cuts from them, they almost provoked a riot. The two said that the day for paying the silver had not yet come, and asked Caesar to investigate and deal with the matter. thing.Both parties were satisfied with the decision Caesar made.About a third of their army disbanded within two days.Caesar ordered his own two legions to go before them, and the rest of the army to follow them, and camp not too far apart from each other.This was entrusted to one of his lieutenants, Quintus Hempius Callenus, for execution.According to his orders, the rest of this army was disbanded there when it reached the Varus River from Spain.
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