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Chapter 12 Volume 3 81-100

Civil War 凯撒 7040Words 2018-03-21
81.Influenced by the same rumors, the Metropolitans at first took the same course, closing the gates and manning the walls with armed troops.But then, learning of Gormfi's doom from captives whom Caesar had ordered brought down to show them, they opened the gates.Residents are carefully guarded.Comparing the fortunes of the Metropolitans with the misfortunes of the Gomfies, no town in Thessalia disobeyed Caesar and did not carry out his orders, except Larissa, which was on the west coast. under the control of Pia's army.Caesar found a suitable place in a field where the grain was almost ripe, and waited there for Pompey's arrival, and transferred all military operations there.

82.Pompey arrived in Thessaly a few days later and addressed the whole army.He thanked his own troops, and encouraged Scipio's to fight for a share of the spoils and rewards in a war that was already certain to be won.After arranging all these legions in one camp, he maintained the same status and status as Scipio, ordered the trumpet to be blown in his camp, and another tent to be erected for him.With the increase of Pompey's force, two great armies were merged into one, and the soldiers' original confidence was strengthened, and the hope of victory was more certain.Therefore, the more time dragged on, the more it seemed that their return to Italy was delayed.When Pompey showed some hesitation or hesitation in any action, they insisted that it was just a day's work. Level people are used as slaves.Already they were openly vying for remuneration and priesthood, for the allocation of consul seats for the next few years, and some were claiming the estates and fields of those who were in Caesar's camp.In their discussions a great disagreement arose as to whether Lucilius Cyrus, who had been sent by Pompey to his rest, could be allowed to attend the next year's magistrates in his absence. During the election campaign, his friends asked Pompeo not to break his promise, and to keep the promise he made when he was leaving, so that people would not think that Hillus was fooled by his prestige.Others believed that the hardships and dangers were equally shared by all, and opposed the monopoly of power by one person.

83.Domitius, Scipio, and Lentulus Spinter were already daily quarreling over Caesar's priesthood, to the point of publicly using the most insulting words.Lentulus boasted of his age and virtue, Domitius boasted of his popularity and prestige in the capital, and Scipio relied on his kinship with Pompey.Acutius Luiz also accused Lucius Aphranius before Pompey of betraying the army, which he said had been done in Spain.Luchiugi Domitius said at a council of war that, in his opinion, it would be best if, after the war was over, three plaques should be given to those who belonged to the rank of senators and who had fought on their side Let them vote for those who stayed in Rome and did not come, or those who were mixed with Pompey's army but did not work hard on the battlefield. For the person who has been punished, the second piece is used for the person who should be deprived of public rights, and the third piece is for the person who should be fined.In short, everyone talked about their own bright future, monetary rewards, or revenge for personal grievances. As for how to win this war, they never thought about it, only how to enjoy the victory.

84.When Caesar had arranged his provisions, settled the morale of the army, and thought that after the battle of Dyrrakium there had been a long enough interval to allow himself to fully observe the morale of the army, he thought it was time to test Pompey. What purpose and thoughts do you have for the battle?Therefore, he drew his army out of the camp, and formed a battle formation, first at a place on his own side, a little distance from Pompey's camp.In the next few days, he simply left his camp and rushed as far as the hills where Pompey's army was stationed.Every day this action inspired the confidence of the soldiers more and more.But in terms of cavalry, because the enemy's cavalry is several times more than ours, he still maintains the old method mentioned above, that is, ordering some young and agile people to be selected from the elite soldiers under his banner, and the weapons should also be light and sharp. Mix and fight together in the cavalry.They all gain experience in this style of fighting thanks to constant practice every day.As a result of these trainings, when needed, our army only needs one cavalry, even in a very open place, can withstand the attack of Pompey's 7,000 cavalry, and will not cause great trouble because of the opponent's large numbers. panic.Even in those days he had been victorious in a cavalry battle, killing, among others, the two Allobs who had fled to Pompey, as previously mentioned. One of the Logis tribe.

85.Pompey's camp was on the hill, always placing his troops in the lowest places at the foot of the hill, and seemed to have been waiting to see if Caesar should advance further into the unfavorable position.Seeing that there was no way to draw Pompey out for a decisive battle, Caesar believed that the best plan of action was to move his camp away from the place and march continuously. It is convenient, and at the same time walking on the road, you can encounter some opportunities to force the enemy to fight, and you can use the continuous march every day to tire the Pompeii army who cannot bear hardships and stand hard work.Having made these decisions, and when the order to break camp was passed, and the tents were being taken down, they noticed that some time before, Pompey's array, contrary to its daily habit, had advanced some distance away from the ramparts, so that there seemed to be some It may not be necessary to fight in unfavorable terrain.So Caesar said to the troops assembled at the gate of the camp: "We must now stop marching, and think of fighting as we have been striving. Let us be ready to fight with all our hearts. We will not find it easy in the future." .” He immediately led the troops and went out in light clothes.

86. As it was later discovered, Pompey, with the unanimous encouragement of his men, had also resolved to make a decisive battle.He actually declared at the military meeting a few days ago that he could defeat Caesar's army before the two armies had confronted each other.When some people expressed surprise at this, he said: "I know that it is an incredible thing that I promise you, but please listen to the reason why I intend to do so, so that when you go to fight, I have persuaded our cavalry--and they have promised me to do so--to go up against Caesar's exposed right flank as the two armies approach each other, and encircle their ranks from behind, We made them terrified and fled before a single weapon was thrown at them. This way, our legions would not have to risk any more, and the battle could be ended with almost no casualties. For our cavalry is so strong. It is not difficult to do so.” At the same time, he told them that they should cheer up for tomorrow, they were always looking forward to the battle, and now that they had such an opportunity, they must not let himself and others down on them .

87.Labinus followed him closely.While belittling Caesar's army, he touted Pompey's plans.He said: "Pompey, don't think that this army is the one that conquered Gaul and Germany. I was personally present in those battles. I don't know what I don't know. I won't speak rashly. That year A small part of the army remained, the greater part of which had been lost as the inevitable result of so many battles, many more died in the autumn plagues in Italy, and many more left the army to go home and many more were left on the Continent. Have you not heard that at Brundisium those who remained in ill health were formed into armies, which you see were made of It was composed of people recruited in Negaul in recent years, many of them came from the colonies beyond the Padus River. Even so, all their elites were killed in the two battles of Dirrakium hit." Having said these words, he swore that he would never return to the camp until he was victorious.He also encouraged others to take the same oath.Pompeo praised his proposal, and also took the oath.None of the other people present hesitated to take the oath.After doing this at the war council, they all dispersed cheerfully, with high hopes.They all believed in their hearts that victory was certain. From their point of view, on such an important matter, such an experienced commander would never open his mouth and encourage them casually.

88.Caesar, approaching Pompey's camp, saw that his formation was arranged as follows: on the left flank were the two legions which Caesar surrendered at the beginning of the civil war by resolution of the Senate, one of which was called the First Legion , the other was called the Third Legion, and Pompey himself was on this side.Scipio took the Syrian legion in the center of the line, and the Cilician legion, united with the battalions which we have already said Aphranius brought from Spain, was placed on the right flank.Pompey considered these to be the strongest troops he had.The rest he placed in the center of the line and between the wings, making a total of one hundred and ten battalions.The total number of this army was 45,000.He also had about two thousand old soldiers who had been favored by him in previous wars and who had come to gather again this time, and he scattered them throughout the army.In addition, seven battalions remained, which he placed in the camp, or in the nearest fort, to serve as guards.On his right flank he was protected by a river with steep banks, and for this reason he placed all his cavalry, and all his crossbowmen and slingers on his left.

89.Caesar, maintaining his former custom, placed the Tenth Legion on the right flank, and the Ninth Legion, though greatly reduced at the battle of Dyrrakium, on the left flank, and he placed the Eighth Legion with it, so that, Almost united the two legions into one, ordering that they must support each other.He had eighty battalions in the field, totaling twenty-two thousand men.Seven battalions were left to guard the camp.He placed Antony on the left, Publius Sulla on the right, and Gneius Domitius in the center.Facing Pompey himself, noting the above-mentioned position of his opponent, fearing that his right flank would be surrounded by a huge number of cavalry, he hastily drew a battalion from each legion in the third line, and formed them into a fourth line. Let them face the enemy cavalry, and explain to them your plan, reminding them that the victory or defeat of the day depends on the bravery of their battalions.At this time, he ordered the third line and the whole army not to engage in confrontation without his own order, saying that when he wanted them to do so, he would use the commanding flag to issue orders.

90.When, as was the custom of war, he encouraged his troops to fight, he spoke of his unfailing care for them, and especially reminded them that he could have his men prove how hard he had worked for peace. How he endeavored to negotiate through Vathinius, how he dealt with Scipio through Aulus Claudius, how at Oricum he conversed with Libo about the dispatch of the embassy. argued.Never, he said, would he waste the blood of his soldiers, or lose this or that army to the republic.Having said these words, he sounded the order on the trumpet amidst the din of soldiers clamoring for battle. 91.There is a veteran in Caesar's army, Gaius Clastinus, who served as the chief centurion of the Tenth Legion under him the year before last. He is an extremely brave man.As soon as the order was issued, he said: "Come with me, brothers who have been in the same company as me, use your strength that you have long been determined to do for the commander! There is only this battle left. When it is over, he may recover his dignity, and we may recover our freedom." At the same time, he turned to Caesar and said: "Today, my lord, whether dead or alive, I must make you grateful Me!" With these words, he rushed out first on the right flank, followed by about one hundred and twenty selected volunteers from the same battalion.

92.Between the two armies, the distance left was just enough for the two armies to attack.But Pompey told his subordinates in advance to wait for Caesar to attack first, and not to leave the position himself, so as not to mess up the position.He is said to have done this on the advice of Gaius Triarius, so that he might smash the first charge and onslaught of Caesar's army, throw the opposing ranks into disarray, and then hold their ranks Pompey's army in the center can take advantage of the situation to attack the chaotic enemies.He also hoped that if the army held firm together, the spears thrown by the enemy would fall with less force than those who were also running while throwing the spears on this side.At the same time, since Caesar's troops thus had to cover double the distance, they were bound to run out of breath and exhausted.But it seems to us that Pompeo was ill-advised to take this approach.Because all people are born with a spiritual vigor and drive that is blazing with the desire to fight. This kind of passion, as a commander, has only the responsibility to promote and encourage it, and must not stop it.Therefore, the practice handed down from ancient times, that is, the bugles should be sounded from all directions, and the whole army should be shouted in one go, is by no means unreasonable. The purpose is to frighten the enemy and encourage one's subordinates. 93.But when our army issued the order, it had already held up the light spear and ran forward.When they saw that Pompey's army was not coming forward to meet the enemy, they used the experience gained from past battles to automatically stop their advance and stand still at about half the distance so as not to rush to the enemy. Already physically exhausted.After a short pause, he started to move forward again.They threw light spears, and quickly drew their swords, as Caesar instructed.Pompey's army was not incapable of such an attack, and they parried the thrown weapons, resisted the legion's attack, and still maintained their ranks, and after throwing their lances, they also swung their swords.At this moment, the cavalry on Pompey's left wing rushed forward together as ordered.The brigade of crossbowmen also rushed forward.Our cavalry could not hold back their attack, and slowly left their position and retreated. Pompey's cavalry pressed on more fiercely, and scattered one by one, and began to encircle our army from the exposed side of our army.When Caesar saw this, he immediately gave orders to his fourth line, consisting of six battalions, which, at a gallop, advanced with all their strength, and met Pompey's cavalry with such force that none of them could stand, They all turned around, not only escaped from the position, but also flew away, hiding in the extremely high mountains.When they were driven away, all the archers and stone-archers were left alone, annihilated without support.The battalions pursued them all the way, fell upon Pompey's left flank, surrounded them, and attacked them from behind while the opponent continued to resist in the ranks. 94.At this moment, Caesar ordered the third line, which had not moved up to this moment, and was firmly in position, to advance.In this way, on the one hand, there were vigorous soldiers coming to replace those who were weak, and others rushed to attack from behind. Pompey's army could not hold on, and they all turned and fled.Caesar was right, for, as he encouraged them, victory would begin with those battalions placed on the fourth line facing the enemy cavalry.It was because they first repelled the cavalry, because they killed the crossbowmen and stoners, and because they surrounded Pompey's troops on the left flank, that the retreat began.But when Pompey saw that his cavalry had been driven back, and that part of his army which he trusted most was in disarray, he lost all confidence in the rest, and at once he left the field and galloped back to his camp.He clearly said to the centurions who were on duty at the gate of the commander's tent in a voice that could be heard by the soldiers: "Take care of the camp and guard it carefully so as not to cause any trouble. Daomen go to inspect and encourage the people who guard the camp." After saying these words, he entered the commander's tent, completely lost confidence in the overall situation, and let things take their course. 95.When Pompey's troops fled all the way into the ramparts, Caesar, thinking that these panic-stricken men should not be given a chance to breathe, encouraged his men to make good use of the favor of fate and attack the enemy's camp at once.Although the battle had dragged on until noon, and everyone was exhausted from the heat, they were still ready to obey orders wholeheartedly and endure all hardships.The enemy's camp was defended with all their might by the battalions which remained on the garrison, especially those allied with the Thracians and barbarians.As for the soldiers who fled from the battlefield, all of them were panicked and tired. Many of them lost their weapons and company badges. They mainly thought about fleeing there instead of how to defend the camp.Those who were placed on the ramparts could no longer withstand the large number of light spears of our army, and left their posts after being wounded.So, led by their centurion and commander of the legions, they fled all the way to the high mountains that stretched as far as the camp. 96.In Pompey's camp, one can see arbors set up with heavy silver dishes, tents of soldiers covered with fresh turf, tents of Lucius Lentulus and some others The ivy veiled them, and many other things, which pointed to their extraordinary luxury and blind confidence in victory, so that it is not difficult to guess that they did not worry about the outcome of the battle of the day, so they sought unnecessary enjoyment. of.But these same people have been laughing at Caesar's arduous, gritted-toothed army, which their enemies say is extravagant, though they lack everything necessary.When our army was running in the enemy's camp at this time, Pompey found a horse, tore off his commander's clothes, ran out of the camp through the back door, and drove the horse straight to Larissa.He didn't stop there, he collected some of his subordinates who were fleeing along the way, and still kept running at the same speed day and night.He rushed to the seaside with thirty cavalry entourage and boarded a grain ship.All the way he is said to have complained that all his hopes had been utterly thwarted, that the very first to flee were those on whom he had pinned his hopes of victory, and that he had betrayed him. 97.After taking the camp, Caesar urged his soldiers not to be so preoccupied with looting that they missed the opportunity to do the rest.With their approval, he began to surround the mountain with fortifications.Since there was no water on the mountain, Pompey's men lost confidence in the place and began to retreat along the ridge towards Larissa.Seeing this, Caesar divided his forces, ordering some of the legions to remain in Pompey's camp, and some to return to their own.He himself took the four legions and set off on a shorter road to pursue Pompey's army.The array unfolded as he caught up to six miles.Seeing this, Pompey's army stopped on a hill at the foot of which a river was flowing.Caesar encouraged his men.So, though they were weary with continuous labor all day, and it was getting dark, they set to work to cut off the river from the mountain, so that Pompey's army could not take it by night. water.When this work was completed they began to send messengers to beg for surrender, and the few senators who were with them fled by night. 98.At first daybreak Caesar ordered all those who had been lingering on the mountain to come down from the heights to the plain and lay down their arms.When they had done this without any resistance, they all sprawled on the ground, with outstretched hands, and begged him, weeping, to spare them.He comforted them, made them stand, and said to them some words of his own mercy, to assuage their terror.He spared them all, and led them to his men, and told them not to hurt any of them, nor to let them lose anything.After such careful arrangements, he ordered the other legions to leave the camp and come to him, while the legions he had brought here returned to the camp and took turns to rest.On that day, he arrived in Larissa. 99.In this battle, less than two hundred soldiers were lost, but they included thirty centurions, all very brave men.Also fell was that Crastinus whom we have mentioned, who was struck in the face by a sword in the midst of a most valiant fight.He was not mistaken in what he said when he set out to fight, for Caesar believed that Clastinus had indeed shown incomparable valor in the battle, and was sure that he had done a great service for himself.Of Pompey's army about 15,000 died, and over 24,000 surrendered, for even the battalions that were stationed as guards in the fortress surrendered to Sulla.In addition, many people fled to nearby towns.One hundred and eighty company banners and nine eagle banners of the legions were captured in battle and sent to Caesar.Lucius Domitius fled from the camp into the mountains, and was killed by the cavalry as he was exhausted. 100.At the same time, Decimus Lelius arrived at Brundisium with his fleet, and, in the same manner as we have said about Libo, occupied the port of Brundisium. that small island.Likewise Vathinius, who was in charge of guarding Brundisium.He decked some small boats, and sent them to lure out Laelius' ships, and captured the quinquereme and two small ships in the mouth of the harbor, which were usually too far from his own fleet.At the same time, he deployed cavalry sentries in twos and threes everywhere to prevent the sailors on board from getting drinking water.However, Lelius took advantage of the most navigable time of year to send cargo ships to Cocula and Dyrakium to supply his men with water.Nothing could dissuade him from his purpose until the news of the Battle of Thessalia, neither the disgrace of the lost ship nor the want of necessaries, could drive him from the port and island.
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