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Chapter 21 Africa War 61-80

Civil War 凯撒 7559Words 2018-03-21
61.The armies of the two sides opened up like this, with a distance of less than 300 steps between them. In the past, under this kind of situation, there may never have been a time that did not end in a battle, but now they persisted from early morning to the tenth hour.Just as Caesar was leading his troops back to his fortifications, all the Numidian and Hadorian barebacks of the enemy, who were at a distance, suddenly moved on the right and charged at the enemy on the high ground. Caesar's camp draws closer.Labienus's saddled cavalry remained on the ground, holding the legion in check.At this time, part of Caesar's cavalry and light soldiers, neither receiving orders nor thinking carefully, rushed to the Gaitulians recklessly, crossed the swamp, and ran to a far away place, but because the number of cavalry was too small, , was really no match for the outnumbered enemy, and was forced to abandon the light troops and retreat back to his own side, losing one cavalryman and wounding many horses.Twenty-seven of the light soldiers were killed.Delighted by this successful cavalry battle, Scipio led the army back to camp in the evening.But Fate was determined not to bestow endless joy on those who participated in the war, because on the next day, when Caesar sent some of his cavalry to Leptis to get food, a hundred people happened to meet on the road. The Numidian and Gaetulian cavalry, who were plundering, attacked them when they were unprepared, and killed some of them, and captured the rest alive.At the same time, Caesar brought his legions to the plain every day, and continued to build fortifications, extending his ramparts and trenches across the middle of the plain, so as to prevent the enemy's sudden attack.Scipio likewise built a fortification against it; hastening to do so, lest Caesar should cut him off from the mountain.In this way, the leaders of both sides devoted all their efforts to building fortifications, but cavalry battles between each other continued every day.

62.Meanwhile, the Vapus, who had previously dragged the fleet to the beach of Utica for the rest of winter, heard that the 7th and 8th legions were coming from Sicily, and there quickly put the Chatuli oarsmen and The crew loaded the fleet, and with fifty-five ships, sailed from Utica to Hadrumetucai, intending to set a net for them.Caesar, unaware of Varus's arrival, sent Lucius Chispius with a fleet of twenty-seven ships to the vicinity of Tapsus to keep watch over the sea there for protection. transport team.At the same time, for the same purpose, he sent Quintus Aquila to Hadrumetum with thirteen ships of war.Kispius quickly arrived where he was sent, but Aquila, unable to round the headland because of the rough wind and waves, found a small harbor where he could escape the wind and waves, and let him and his fleet hide without a trace. inside.The rest of Caesar's fleet was anchored off Leptis, and the oarsmen wandered about on the shore, and some went to the town to buy food for themselves, and there was not a single guard on board.Varus learned of this from the fugitives, seized this opportunity, and took his entire fleet out of the inner harbor of Hadrumetum in the second watch, arrived at Leptis early in the morning, and moored In the deep sea some way away from the port, the unguarded transport ships were all burned up, and two quinqueremes were captured without fighting.

63.Meanwhile, messengers quickly brought the news to the camp to report to Caesar, who was at this time patrolling his fortifications, six miles from the port.Putting all his work aside, he rode swiftly to Leptis, where he encouraged all the ships to follow him.He boarded a small boat by himself. During the voyage, he happened to meet Aquila who was panicked and helpless because of the large number of enemy ships. Caesar took over his fleet and chased after the enemy ships.At this moment, Varus was shocked by Caesar's swiftness and boldness, and turned his whole fleet back, and fled hastily to Hadrum.Caesar, after four miles in pursuit, recovered a quinquereme, which, besides its original crew, contained one hundred and thirty enemy watchmen.In addition, he captured a trireme, with its entire oarsman and crew, which had been straggled in battle by an enemy at hand.The rest of the enemy's ships rounded the sea, and all hid in Hadrumetum, but Caesar, not being able to ride the same gust of wind around the navy, spent the night there at anchor, and the next day was just dawning. At that time, they rushed to Hadrumetum and burned all the transport ships outside the inner harbor there.Since the rest of the ships were either held by the enemy on the shore or hibernated in the inner harbor, he only stayed there for a while to see if there was any chance for a naval battle, and then returned to the camp again.

64.Among the captives taken on board that warship were a Roman knight, Publius Vestrius, and a man named Publius Ligarius, who was originally Aphrodisiac A partisan of Lanius, who was released by Caesar in Spain with others, and was driven to Pompey, from where he escaped after the battle of Pharsalus, and reached Varus in Africa. here.Because of his broken oath and capriciousness, Caesar ordered him to be executed.Publius Vestrius was pardoned by Caesar, because his brother had paid him the required ransom at Rome, and Vestrius himself, by his own statement, satisfied Caesar, He said that he was captured by the fleet of Nasidius, and was about to be executed. Varus kindly rescued him, and never let him have a chance to join him.

65.It is the custom of the inhabitants of Africa, both in the fields and in almost every farmhouse, to have secret underground chambers in which to store their grain, in case of war and sudden enemies.Caesar learned of this from the informer, and at the third watch he sent two legions with cavalry ten leagues from his camp.From there they returned to camp with a great deal of provisions.When Labienus learned of this, he drove out of his camp seven miles across the mountainous country that Caesar had passed the day before, and encamped the two legions there.He thought that Caesar would often take this same road to collect provisions, and was waiting for him every day in ambush at suitable points with a large number of cavalry and light soldiers.

66.At the same time, Caesar learned of Techpenus' tricks from the returnees, and he lingered there for a few days, so that the enemy gradually became indifferent because he repeated the same work every day.Then, one morning, he suddenly ordered three veteran legions and a part of the cavalry to go out with him from the rear barracks. Then, sending the cavalry ahead, he unexpectedly attacked the ambushes hidden in the valley and killed one of the light soldiers. about five hundred of them, and the rest fled in disgrace.At this time, Labinus rushed up with all the cavalry to rescue his scattered soldiers.Caesar's cavalry, which were so few in number, could not stand up to the enemy's enormous force, and Caesar brought his legions in formation where the enemy could see them, which alarmed Labinus and stopped him.Caesar took back his cavalry without loss.The next day, King Yuba crucified all the Numidians who had left their position and fled back to their camp.

67.Caesar, now disturbed by want of provisions, led his whole army out of the camp, and, having left a garrison for Leptis Ruspina and Asera, he delivered his fleet to Kyrgyzstan. Spius and Aquila, one at Hadrumetum and the other at Tapsus, engaged in a naval blockade.Then he set fire to his camp, and at the fourth watch of the night, having lined up for battle, gathered his baggage on the left flank, and withdrew from that place to the town of Agar.The town had been frequently attacked by the Getuli in the previous period, and only the town's residents were doing their best to defend it.He built a single camp there on the flat plain, and then went out with part of the army to gather grain and crops from the surrounding farms.After finding large quantities of barley, oil, wine, figs, and a little wheat, the soldiers returned to their camps after enjoying themselves.At the same time Scipio, learning that Caesar was gone, began to take the whole army with him; and following him over the hills, he stopped six leagues from Caesar's camp, and divided his army into three camps.

68.Just ten miles from Scipia, there is a town.It is called Zeta, and it is located in the area on the side where he camped, but it is fourteen miles away from Caesar's camp.Scipio sent two legions to the town to collect fodder, and when Caesar heard the news from a fleeing population, he moved his camp from the plain to a safer place on the hill, where Leaving behind a garrison, he set out with the army in the fourth watch, crossed the enemy's camp, and rushed to occupy the town.He found that Scipio's legions were harvesting in the fields far away, and when he was about to rush towards them, he saw that there were already enemy troops rushing to support those legions, which made him give up attacking them. thought.After capturing the Roman knight in charge of the town, Gaius Minuccius Reginus, a close friend of Scipio, and another Roman knight, Publius A. Trius, having also captured the king's twenty-two camels, left his lieutenant Opius and a garrison there, and began to return to the camp himself.

69.He had to pass Scipio's camp on his way back, when he came not far from that side.Labienus and Aphranius emerged with all the cavalry and light soldiers they had ambushed in the nearby hills, and attacked his rear.After Caesar saw it, he ordered the cavalry to withstand the enemy's impact. After asking the legionnaires to pile up their luggage, they also quickly turned around to face the enemy.The operation had only just begun, and the first attack of the legionaries effortlessly drove back the enemy's cavalry and light soldiers, and drove them down the hill.But when Caesar had just thought that the enemy was defeated and was trembling with fear, and would not attack again, and began to hurry again, they rushed from the nearby mountains again, and in the same way as already mentioned, they attacked Caesar's legions. attack.The Numidians and light soldiers, who have always been interspersed with cavalry, also moved surprisingly quickly, advancing or retreating at the same speed as the cavalry.They used this method again and again to fight, chasing Caesar's army when it was advancing, and turning and fleeing when the opponent stopped, but they never approached. It is enough to stab the opponent's horse.Caesar saw their plan, and knew that they were only trying to drive him to camp in a place where there was not a drop of water, so that his army, which had not eaten from the fourth watch of the night to the tenth hour of the day, The hungry army, even the men and horses died of thirst.

70.By this time the sun had almost set.In four quarters, they only walked less than a hundred steps.Seeing that the horses of the cavalry had been killed, Caesar brought them from the rear to the front, and sent the legions to the rear to replace them.In this way, when the legionnaires advance calmly and slowly, it is much more convenient to resist the impact of the enemy.same.The Numidian cavalry team rushed ahead, running left and right along the mountains, trying to rely on the large number of people to form a circle and surround Caesar's army, and some of them chased Caesar's rear army behind. .At the same time, on Caesar's side, as long as three or four veteran soldiers turn around and swing their spears and throw them at the Numidians who are harassing them, even if there are more than two thousand of them, they will turn their backs. Run away, there will be none left.However, they will turn around again and come together from all directions.Form a formation and chase at a distance.Throw heavy spears at legionnaires.In this way, while advancing, while stopping to resist.The march was dragged on, and at last he made it to the end, and by the first hour of the night all his men had returned to camp without losing a single man, but only ten wounded.Labienus also fell back to his own men, losing about three hundred men, and many wounded, in addition to being exhausted by the pursuit.Scipio, who had brought out the army and the elephants, and formed a battle-line before the camp in the presence of Caesar, in order to arouse his terror, also retreated into the camp.

71.Facing such an enemy.Caesar began to train his own troops, but not like a commander training an old army that has experienced many battles and achievements, but like a gladiator trainer training his new gladiators, teaching them to fight against the enemy. How many steps should be taken while retreating, what method should be used when turning around to face the enemy, the resistance to the enemy should be within a few steps, how to advance and retreat at times, pretend to attack, where to connect and what to use They had to be taught how to throw a light spear.It is difficult to describe the anxiety and anxiety which the enemy's light soldiers caused among our cavalry, for they often killed our horses with their javelins, so that our cavalry, when they went into battle, feared that the horses would be killed. , Cowardly, they also used the extremely fast speed to make our legionnaires exhausted.Whenever a heavily armed soldier of our army stopped immediately after their pursuit and attacked them, they easily escaped danger because of their light steps. 72.These things disturbed Caesar greatly, for he saw that whenever a battle took place his cavalry were no match for the cavalry and light infantry of the enemy without the support of the legionaries.There was another thing that worried him, that is, he still didn't know the combat effectiveness of the opponent's legion. If the opponent's cavalry and elusive light soldiers were also supported by the legion, he wondered whether they would be able to stop them again.There was another cause for his anxiety, namely, the size and number of the elephants, which made the soldiers preoccupied with them and anxious.But he found a solution to this problem.He ordered several elephants to be transported across the sea to Italy, so that the soldiers could know them, the shape and nature of these animals, which part of its body was easily injured by arrows and spears, and which part of an elephant's body was vulnerable when it was wearing ornaments and armor. Part of it is uncovered and exposed.Their spears can be thrown that way.In particular, he wanted the horses to get used to the smell, roar, and shape of these animals, so that they would no longer be frightened.Caesar learned a great deal from these trainings, for the soldiers were able to touch them and understand their slowness, and the cavalry practiced throwing them with blunt lances. War horses are also used to it.No wonder. 73.For the reasons I have mentioned, Caesar was very apprehensive, and, contrary to his old habit of making quick decisions in battle, hesitated.Be cautious.This is not surprising, since he had an army accustomed to fight the Gauls on the Gaul plains, against open-minded men who seldom played tricks, and generally relied on bravery rather than on cunning. Whereas he fought cunningly, he now took pains to accustom his soldiers to the tricks, tricks, and tactics of the enemy, so that they might know which methods to employ and which to avoid.Therefore, in order to hasten the completion of their training, he tried his best to keep the legion not in one place, but to make them go from one place to another in the name of herding, because he also knew that the enemy would not stop. Will not come without following.Two days later, he led the army out of the camp in strict order, passed by the enemy's camp, and challenged them on a level ground.He led the legions back in the evening when he saw that the enemy was too cowed to fight. 74.Meanwhile messengers came from Vaga, a town adjoining Zeta, which we have already said was in Caesar's hands, and they begged for a reinforcement to be sent to them, Something to support Caesar.At this time, due to the will and love of the gods, a man who had returned from a fugitive told his people in his own country that King Yuba had rushed to this town with an army, and wanted to run away before Caesar's garrison arrived. Once there, surround it with a large army, and after capturing it, kill all the residents in the town, and hand over the town to your own army to plunder and destroy. 75.Meanwhile, Caesar celebrated the removal of the ominous for his army on March 21.Next day he brought out his whole army, and went five leagues from his camp, and put them in battle formation, about two leagues from Scipio's camp.When he saw that although he had challenged the enemy often and for a long time, they still did not come out to meet him, he led his army back to camp.The next day he moved his camp to the town of Sassura, where Scipio had a Numidian garrison, and there he had stored up his provisions.When Labienus saw this, he came with cavalry and light soldiers to harass Caesar's rear, and intercepted the peddlers and merchants who were carrying their goods in carts.This made him more courageous to be loyal to the closer and more daring advance of our army. He thought that our soldiers were tired with heavy loads and luggage, and there would be no more battles.This did not go as far as Caesar had expected, he had already ordered that each legion must have 300 men marching lightly.At this time, he ordered these men to be sent up to deal with Labienus' cavalry, and to support his own cavalry.Then, when Labienus saw the company's banner, he panicked, turned the cavalry back, and fled in desperation.Many of them were killed and many others were wounded.Our legionnaires returned to their own ranks and started on the road again.Labinus refused to give up the chase, and still followed our army along the mountains on the right side of our army at a distance. 76.When Caesar reached the town of Sasura, he slew the guards of Scipio, while the enemy almost watched, but dared not come up to the aid of his own side.In charge there was one of Scipio's remaining veterans, Publius Cornelius.He put up a valiant resistance, but was slain under a great siege, and the town was taken.It was there that Caesar distributed the provisions to the soldiers, and arrived at the town of Tisdera the next day.At this moment Considius was stationed there with a large garrison and a guard of his own gladiators.Caesar observed the terrain of the town, and since there was not enough drinking water there, he could not attack it. He immediately set out from there, and pitched a camp at a place about four miles away from the water source. He set out from there again, and returned to his camp at Agar.Scipio did likewise, and brought his troops back to the old camp. 77.Meanwhile, the Tarbenas, who were on the remotest coast of Yuba's kingdom, and who had always been accustomed to obey his statutes and rule, slew the king's garrison, and sent messengers to Caesar to tell them what they had done. Report him, and earnestly ask the people of Rome to regard them for what they have done for the Romans.At this time of life and death, help them.Caesar applauded their conduct, and sent Marchius Crispus to Tarbena to garrison with three battalions, some archers, and many war machines.At that moment, all the soldiers of all the legions who had not been able to come because of illness, or who had left the ranks on leave, now crossed the sea to Caesar in Africa in one voyage. There were four thousand soldiers, four hundred cavalry, and Thousands of archers and archers.He therefore drew these troops, with all his legions, and laid them out in battle formation on a plain which was five leagues from his own camp, and really only two miles from Sipiagon's camp. 78.Below Scipio's camp there was a town called Tegea, where he always kept a guard of about two thousand cavalry.Now he deployed the cavalry in a line to the left and right of the town, and he himself led the legion out of the camp again, advancing as far as a mile from his fortifications, at a The lower part of the hillside of the mountain is laid out.After a while, Scipio remained where he was.When Caesar saw that the day would be wasted in inaction, he ordered his cavalry to attack the enemy cavalry guarding the town, and to support them with light soldiers, archers, and stone archers.When the attack began, and Caesar's cavalry galloped and charged as hard as they could, Pacidius stretched out his cavalry to have a chance of encircling Caesar's cavalry, while still being extremely valiant and extremely brave. Fight fiercely.Seeing the enemy's fighting methods, Caesar ordered the legion to stand in formation closest to the battle, and took out the 300 soldiers who had always been lightly loaded in the legion, and went up to support the cavalry.At the same time, Labienus also sent his cavalry up to support his cavalry, and spared those who were not injured.Vigorous cavalry replaced the wounded and tired.Later Caesar's 400 cavalry could not withstand the pressure of an enemy army numbering 4,000.Some people were also injured by Numidian light soldiers, so they retreated a little bit.Caesar sent cavalry on the other flank to quickly support those who could not cope.This encouraged his subordinates, and together they rushed towards the enemy, causing them to scatter and flee in all directions, killing many of the enemy and wounding many, and chasing them for three miles, driving them to the mountains before retreating to their own camp. position.Caesar stayed until the tenth moment, then formed a battle formation and retreated to his camp without any loss.During this battle, Pakidgos was badly wounded on the head by a heavy spear piercing his helmet.Some of the leaders of the enemy, and all their bravest men, were either killed or wounded. 79.Caesar saw that it was impossible, by any means, to bring the enemy to level ground, to risk their legions into battle, and, for lack of water, to advance their battalion any closer to the enemy, Jia also saw that the enemy dared to despise him, not because they boasted of bravery, but because they deceived him for lack of water.He left Agar at the third watch on April 4th.After marching sixteen miles by night, they pitched their camp near Tapsus.Vigilius was stationed there with a very large army.On the same day Caesar laid siege to the town, and placed his garrison at many suitable and convenient points, that the enemy could not come in close to him, or occupy places within the encirclement.Scipio knew Caesar's plan, and in order to avoid the shame of losing his most loyal Tapsus and Vigilius, he had no choice but to fight, so he immediately followed Caesar along the highlands, Eight miles away from Tapsus, they built two camps and stopped. 80.There was a salt pond, and between it and the sea there was a narrow land not more than two miles and a half away. Scipio attempted to enter this narrow corridor, and from here rushed to the aid of the Tapsus.But what was going to happen could not be hidden from Caesar's eyes. The day before yesterday he had built a blockhouse in that place, and left three battalions there to guard it.He himself built a crescent-shaped camp with the rest of his troops, and surrounded Tapsu with a series of siege fortifications. Marching for two days, one day and one night, when it was dawn, we camped not far from the camp and fortifications mentioned above, and built the fortifications, about one and a half miles from the coast.When this was reported to Caesar, he withdrew his troops from their laboring fortifications, leaving two legions in the charge of the consul Asprenas to guard the camp; rush to that place.He also left part of the fleet in the sea of ​​Tapsus, and ordered the rest of the fleet to sail behind the enemy, as close to the coast as possible, and wait for the order issued by Caesar, asking them to wait until the order was issued, and suddenly shout loudly behind the enemy unexpectedly. , so that the enemy was taken aback, and had to look back in panic and embarrassment.
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