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Chapter 2 Volume 1 1-20

Civil War 凯撒 7784Words 2018-03-21
1.When Caesar's letter was delivered to the consuls, it was only after a hard struggle by the tribunes that they agreed to read it in the senate.But when the tribunes suggested that the matter raised in the letter be discussed in the senate, permission was not obtained.The consul raised the whole big picture of the country.The Consul Lucius Lentulus encouraged the Senate, saying that he would never fail to fulfill his duty to the country if they would speak their minds boldly and boldly. Caesar still has nostalgia, and he still wants to please Caesar, so he has to plan for his own future, no longer obeying the orders of the Senate, and he himself has a retreat to please Caesar again, and then make friends with Caesar.Scipia said the same things, saying that Pompey would not ignore the country, as long as the Senate could follow him, and if the Senate hesitated and procrastinated, he would ask Pompey if needed in the future. Pei helped, but he refused to contribute.

2.Since the Senate was meeting in the city, and Pompey was close at hand, Scipio's words seemed to come from Pompey's own mouth.Others said softer things.First of all, Marcus Marclus, who began his speech by stating that the matter should not be brought up to the Senate, but should wait until after all Italy has been drafted and an army has been raised. After discussion, only under the protection of the army can the Senate dare to make decisions boldly and freely according to its own wishes.Marcus Callidius then suggested that Pompey should return to his province, lest there be any more sources of war, otherwise Caesar would fear the two legions he had taken from him, and Pompey Occupying them and staying near the capital is to use them to hurt him.Next came Marcus Rufus, whose opinion was the same as that of Callidius, with a slight modification.All of them were reprimanded with severe words by the consul Lucius Lentulus.Marclus recoiled from his reprimand, and withdrew his opinion.Thus, by the words of the consul, by the terror of the presence of an army, and by the threat of Pompey's partisans, the majority reluctantly agreed to Scipio's proposal, that Caesar One should disband one's own army by a specified date, failure to do so would be deemed an act against the Republic.The tribunes Marcus Antony and Quintus Cassius vetoed it.The question at once turned to the legality of the tribunal's veto, and some very indignant things were said, the more venomous and cruel they were said, the more enthusiastically they were praised by Caesar's enemies.

3.The Senate did not adjourn until evening, and all members of the order were called out by Pompey.Pompeo praised those who kept going forward, encouraged them for their future actions, criticized and encouraged those who did not follow closely.Many who had served in Pompey's past armies were expected to be rewarded or promoted.He was summoned from all over again.He also called many men from the two legions that Caesar had handed over.For a time, the city, and even the assembly hall, were crowded with legionary commanders, centurions, and retained veterans.All the consuls' wings, Pompey's relatives, and those who had feuds with Caesar poured into the Senate.Their booing and crowding frightened the wavering and strengthened the hesitant, and indeed deprived many people of the opportunity to make decisions freely.Procurator Lucius Piso promised to go to Caesar himself, and the magistrate Lucius Roschius was equally willing to inform Caesar of the matter.They asked for a six-day deadline to complete the work.Others also expressed their opinions, saying: An envoy should be sent to Caesar to inform him of the opinion of the Senate.

4.All these proposals were rejected, and all were refuted by the words of the consuls, Scipio, and Cato.What drove Cato to do this was his old grudge against Caesar and his chagrin at losing the election.Lentulus, on the other hand, was driven by his great debts, driven by the desire to acquire provinces and armies, and the bribes he could hope for when he conferred the title of king.He boasted among himself that he would become another Sulla, and that supreme power would fall into his hands.Scipio was also driven by the desire to master the province and the army.Because of his friendship with Pompey, he thought that he could certainly share the power with Pompey; he was also motivated by his fear of trial, and the authority of himself and those who had great influence in the affairs of the country and in the courts. Praise and boast among people.Pompey himself was provoked by Caesar's enemies, and because he did not want anyone to be on an equal footing with himself, he had completely lost his friendship with Caesar at this time, and reconnected with those who had been his common enemies with Caesar in the past. Well, most of these enemies were caused by him to Caesar when they were married and good friends.Moreover, the shameful behavior of detaining the two legions that were driving to Asia and Syria to increase his strength and prestige also made him angry and tried to provoke a war.

5.It is for these reasons that everything is done in haste and confusion.Neither did Caesar's relatives and friends have time to notify him, nor did the tribunes of the people have an opportunity to avoid their own dangers, nor did they allow them to retain even the most basic veto power left to them by Sulla, forcing them to On the seventh day, you have to consider your own safety.This had never happened to even the most tyrannical tribunes of the people in the past, and even such people did not look back and worry about their political activities until eight months later.These people even invoked the emergency martial law decree of the Senate. In the past, this was never brought up lightly, except that the capital city was in danger of being set ablaze, or there were daring people who were lawless, and national security was completely on the verge of extinction. Yes, it directed the consuls, the magistrates, the tribunes, and the consuls in the capital, to take care that nothing should be done to the state.This senate decree was promulgated on January 7, that is, on the fifth day after Lentulus became consul, the senate could be called-except for two days of elections-they passed such a The most severe and vicious decree against Caesar's office, against these most eminent men, the tribunes.The tribunes fled at once from the capital, and defected to Caesar, who was at Ravenna awaiting an answer to his most mild request, and wondered whether, by virtue of the impartiality of men, Peace ends.

6.For several days afterwards the senate met outside the city, and Pompey did exactly what he had said through Scipio's mouth.He praised the bravery and firmness of the Senate, and described his own strength, saying: He has prepared ten legions. In addition, he also received a report that he knew that in Caesar's army, the hearts of the people were scattered, and Caesar could not persuade him at all. They rise up to defend themselves or even follow themselves.Immediately other matters were brought up in the Senate, viz. conscription throughout Italy; sending Faustus Sulla at once to Mauritania;Also proposed: the title of ally and friend of King Yuba, but Marclus objected to it being given to him at present.The appointment of Faustus was also vetoed by Phillips, the tribune of the people.For other matters, the Senate passed the record.A resolution was also passed to assign the offices of prefects to private individuals, two of the provinces to the rank of consuls, and the rest to the rank of magistrates.Scipio got Syria, Lucius Domitius got Gaul, Phillips and Cotta were kicked out because of personal relations, and their lottery was not even drawn.Other provinces sent magistrates, but did not have time, as in years past, to present their appointments to the people, to formally don their uniforms, and take their oaths publicly, before leaving the city.As for the two consuls all leaving the capital, and the privates actually appearing in the capital and the Acropolis with the school lieutenant, this is something that has never been seen in the past, and it is contrary to the usual practice throughout the ages.Conscription was carried out throughout Italy, weapons were conscripted, and money was demanded from towns and cities, and even the monasteries were forced to seize. All the rights of gods and people were messed up.

7.These things were reported to Caesar, who addressed the soldiers.He reminded them of the malicious slander his enemies had done to him in the past.He also complained that Pompey was being seduced and corrupted by these men, who, out of jealousy, were bent on injuring his reputation, though his own honor and dignity had always been dear to him and promoted.He blamed them for having set a precedent for the republic by insulting and destroying by force the veto of the tribunes, which had been restored by force only a few years before.Sulla, though deprived of the tribunes of all powers, left untouched the free exercise of the veto, and Pompey, though he claimed to have restored what they had lost, actually gave back what they had. All taken away.In the past, unless something disruptive laws were proposed.Or when there is violence by the tribunes, when the people are divided, when the temples and fortresses are taken, otherwise orders would not have been issued calling the attention of the magistrates to the republic, such a call, this senate The resolution meant that all the Roman people were called to arms.He pointed out to them that these precedents of past ages had been paid for by the destruction of Saturninus and the brothers Gracchus.At this moment, not to mention that no such things are happening, no one is even thinking about it.He encouraged the soldiers, since they were under his command, they were able to do many careers for the country smoothly in eight or nine years, fought many invincible battles, and put down all Gaul and Germany. Fame and dignity, rise up against the enemy.The soldiers of the Thirteenth Legion who were present shouted in unison that they were ready to defend their commander and tribunes from harm.This legion was called here at the beginning of the turmoil, and the other legions had not yet arrived.

8.Understanding the feelings of the soldiers, Caesar led the legion to Ariminum, where he met the tribunes who had fled to him.He summoned the rest of the legion from their winter camp and ordered them to follow him.Young Lucius Caesar - whose father was serving as lieutenant in Caesar's army - came to Caesar.After saying something else, he declared that he had come from Pompey, and that he had been ordered to bring some personal remarks.Pompey wanted to explain clearly to Caesar, lest Caesar misunderstand what he was doing for the benefit of the country as a purpose to hurt Caesar.He himself has always put the interests of the country before personal friendship.He hoped that Caesar should also take care of his own dignity, and should sacrifice his personal spirit and resentment for the sake of the country, lest when he was full of anger and only wanted to hurt his enemies, he would also hurt the country.In addition to adding some similar words, he also defended Pompey.The magistrate Roschius spoke almost exactly the same as the young Caesar, and spoke similarly, also at the behest of Pompey.

9.These words did not appear to have comforted Caesar's wounds, but they did lead him to the proper persons through whom he could convey to Pompey what he had to say.He asked them both that since they had brought Pompey's instructions to him, he hoped that they would not take the trouble to bring his request to Pompey as well, and that perhaps they would be able to convey the serious matter with a little effort. Disputes were eliminated, and all Italy was liberated from anxiety.He said: He himself has always put the dignity of the country first, and he regards it more important than his own life.To his grief, his enemies deprived him of the favor bestowed upon him by the people of Rome, and deprived him of his office for half a year, forcing him to return to the capital.Allowing him to run in absentia at the next election meeting was originally approved by the Citizens' Assembly.In spite of the loss of these honors, he was able to suffer calmly for the sake of the country, but when he wrote to the Senate, he asked only that everyone should let go of the military power together, and he didn't even ask for this.All Italy was conscription; the two legions which were taken from him, pretending to be sent to the Parthian wars, were intercepted; the whole country was armed.Could all this be for anything but his destruction, but nevertheless he was ready to yield and endure anything for the sake of his country, so long as Pompey returned to his own province, and both of them Disband your own army, let all the people in Italy lay down their arms, let the country no longer be intimidated, and leave free elections and all national affairs to the Senate and the Roman people.There are more definite conditions for these things to be done more easily.And obtain an oath guarantee, you can ask Pompey to come to a closer place, or allow Caesar to go to him by himself, and after talks, all disputes can be resolved.

10.Having accepted these instructions, Roskius and Lucius Caesar rushed to Capua, where they met with the two consuls and Pompey, and reported Caesar's request.After consideration, they respond to these matters in written instructions.Still sent these two men to bring back to Caesar.Its content is roughly: Caesar must leave Ariminum, return to Gaul, and disband his army; if he does this, Pompey will return to Spain.Likewise, the consuls and Pompey could not stop the conscription unless Caesar submitted pledges that he would keep these promises. 11.This is a very unfair request.Caesar was asked to withdraw from Ariminum and return to the province, but Pompey himself kept the province and the legions that were originally someone else; Caesar's army was about to be disbanded, but he himself was still recruiting; , but did not specify when to leave, so that even if Caesar's consul's term expires and he does not leave, there is no need to worry about the gods of heaven and earth because of lying.He neither proposed a time for a meeting nor promised to meet, and all hope of peace was completely extinguished.Caesar sent Marcus Antony with five battalions from Ariminum to Aretium.He took two battalions of his own, and stayed at Ariminum, where he proceeded to recruit recruits, while sending another battalion each to occupy Pishorum, Farnum, and Ancona.

12.At the same time, it was reported that Termus, the magistrate, with five battalions, was guarding Igvium and was fortifying the city; Good impression.Caesar sent Curio there with three battalions at Pishorum and Ariminum.When he heard of his approach, Termus, not trusting the popular opinion of the city, led his army out of the city and fled.The soldiers deserted him on the road.Return home.After learning of this, Caesar felt that the people in these towns could be trusted and he would not have any worries, so he pulled all the battalions of the Thirteenth Legion from garrison work and set out for Oxymum.Attius brought several battalions into the city, and was stationing there, and sent out some of the senators, who went about all over Picnum to recruit troops. 13.As soon as they knew that Caesar was coming, the elders of the local council of Oximoum ran to Attius Varus and said to him: They all know that this matter should not be decided by them, but Whether they themselves or other citizens can't bear to shut Gaius Caesar, a commander who has contributed to the country and made such a great cause, out of the city gates and barriers, hoping that he can pay attention to the public opinion of later generations and his own Danger.These words moved Varus, and the garrison he had brought in led out of the city and fled.A few of Caesar's former army pursued him, forcing him to stop and resist.As soon as the confrontation happened, Vapus was abandoned by his subordinates, some of the soldiers returned home, and the rest ran to Caesar.Also seized and brought with them was the chief centurion, Lucius Pupius, who had formerly held the same rank in the army of Gneius Pompey.But Caesar, after praising the soldiers of Attius, deposited this Zempius.He thanked the Oxymum again, promising that he would remember their deeds. 14.When this was announced in Rome, there was a sudden and great consternation.Consul Lentulus just rushed to open the treasury, preparing to take out the money allocated to Pompey by the resolution of the Senate. The door of the sanctuary had just been opened before he had no time to escape out of the city.Rumors spread that Caesar was on his way, and that his cavalry had arrived.Lentulus' colleague Marclus and most of the officials fled with him.Gneius Pompey had left the capital the day before to go to the two legions he had received from Caesar, who were at the time stationed in Apulia because of hibernation. .Conscription work near the capital also came to a halt.Anything on the side of Capua was considered less safe.At Capua, these men first emboldened, gathered together, and began to recruit among the settlers settled in Capua under the Act of Julius.Caesar had a gladiator school over there, and the gladiators in it were brought to the market by Lentulus, who inspired them with the hope of freedom, distributed them horses, and ordered them to follow him.Afterwards Lentulus's men warned him that no one commented on the matter seriously.He again dispersed them among the slaves of the Roman citizens living in Capua.Leave it to them. 15.Caesar set out from Oxymum and traveled all over the territory of Picnum.All the magistrates of the district welcomed him with joy, and supported his army with all kinds of supplies, even Kingulum, the city founded by Labinus and built by him with his own money. Town, also sent messengers to him, promising him that they would do with zeal what he commanded them to do.He asked for soldiers, and they sent them.At this moment, the Twelfth Legion also overtook Caesar, and he led these two legions to Asculum in Picnum.The town, which was now guarded by Lentulus Spinter with ten battalions, fled from the city as soon as he learned of Caesar's arrival, and tried to take the battalions with him, but most of the soldiers deserted over him.When he was on his way with a few remnants of soldiers, he happened to meet Viblius Lulos, who Pompey had sent to the Picnum area to calm people's hearts.Viblius learned from him what had happened at Picnum, took his army, and sent him away.Viblius himself gathered as many battalions as he could gather in the vicinity from Pompey's new conscripts, to which he added the six original troops brought by Lucius Cyrus, who had escaped from Camerinum. The battalion used to guard the town.With these troops Viblius had thirteen battalions.With this force he hurried to Domilius Ahenobarbus, who was at Cophenium, and reported to him that Caesar was approaching with two legions.Domelius himself had raised about twenty battalions at Alba, drawn from among the Marcians and Pelinians in the neighboring country. 16.After recapturing Fernum and expelling Lentulus, Caesar ordered the pursuit of the fleeing soldiers of the other side and ordered conscription.He himself stayed there a day to arrange rations, and then hastened to Cophenium.When he got there, Domilius sent out five battalions from the city, and broke down a bridge over the river, which was about three miles from the city.Caesar's outpost engaged them there, and Domelius' army was soon driven from the bridge; and fled back into the city.Caesar brought his legions across the bridge to the city, and set up camp near the wall. 17.Got it.Domelius selected some people who were familiar with the terrain, offered them a lot of rewards, and asked them to send a letter to Pompey in Apulia, earnestly asking Pompey to rescue him, saying: Because the terrain here is very difficult, it is easy to use it. Two armies stopped Caesar.It can also cut off his food transportation.He also said: Unless Pompey came to help, his army of more than 30 battalions, a large number of senators and Roman knights, would be in danger.At the same time, after encouraging his subordinates, Domirius arranged combat machines on the city, divided the city wall into sections, and assigned special personnel to guard them.At the assembly of the sergeants, he also promised to give them his own land, four Luomu each, and the centurion and the veterans who stayed could increase in proportion. 18.At the same time it was reported to Caesar that a town called Sulmo, seven miles from Coffinium, whose inhabitants were eager to do what Caesar ordered them to do, was garrisoned with seven battalions of garrisons. The patriarch Quintus Lucretius over there and a Pelinian named Attius prevented it from being done.He sent Marcus and Antony to the town with five battalions of the Eighth Legion.As soon as the inhabitants of Sulmore saw the banner of our army, they immediately opened the gates, and all the people, whether residents or soldiers, came up to Antony and celebrated.Lucretius and Attius jumped down from the wall and escaped.Attius was captured and handed over to Antony, who asked to be sent to Caesar.On the day of departure, Antony returned with the battalions of troops and Attius.Caesar combined those battalions with his own army, and released Attius without injury.Caesar resolved to spend the first few days in building a great fortification of his camp, and in carrying provisions to neighboring towns, in order to await the arrival of the rest of his army.Three days later the Eighth Legion came to him, with twenty-two battalions of conscripts newly conscripted from Gaul, and about three hundred cavalry sent by the king of Noricum.After their arrival, Caesar raised another camp on the other side of the town, and placed Curio under his command.During the rest of his days he set about building ramparts and forts to surround the town.About the time when the greater part of the work was completed, all the envoys sent by Domitius to Pompey returned. 19.After reading the letter, Domelius concealed the truth, announced at the military council that Pompey would come to rescue soon, and encouraged his subordinates not to be discouraged, but to prepare things for the defense of the city.He secretly discussed with a few cronies and made a plan to escape.Because the expression on Domirius' face did not match what he said, everything was done in a panic, which was very different from the past few days, and he also talked with his accomplices many times uncharacteristically, conspiring Planning, avoiding all conferences and civic gatherings, makes these things no longer able to be disguised and disguised.Pompey's reply was written as follows: He did not want to bring the overall situation into an irretrievable desperate situation. Domitius's entry into Coffinium was neither according to his plan nor according to his wishes, so If there is a chance, it is better to take the whole army to his side.But because of the siege, because of the fortifications around the city, this was impossible. 20.Domelius' plan had already spread among the soldiers.Just in the evening the soldiers at Coffinium mutinied, and a council of legions, centurions, and some of the most prestigious among themselves was held, saying: They are besieged by Caesar , the fortifications and ramparts were nearing completion, and their leader, Domilius, though they held on because of hope and devotion to him, wanted to abandon them all, and fled on his own.They should also plan for their own safety.The Marsi initially disapproved of this idea, occupying what appeared to be the strongest fortified part of the city.The differences between them intensified, and even tried to start a showdown by force.But after a while, because messengers were sent to each other to pass messages, they did not know that Domelius was going to escape.At this time also know.Therefore, both parties agreed to bring Domirius to the public.Surrounded and guarded, they sent messengers from among their own to Caesar, saying that they were ready to open the gates, carry out his orders, and deliver Domitius alive into his hands.
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