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Chapter 24 Spanish War 21-42

Civil War 凯撒 9022Words 2018-03-21
twenty one.The next day, some cavalry and light soldiers from the enemy's camp came to us.At this moment, about forty cavalry came out and attacked our water-takers, some were killed, others were taken alive, and eight of these cavalry were taken prisoner by our army. The next day, Pompey Having killed seventy-four men who were said to be counting on Caesar's victory, he ordered the rest to be brought back to town.But one hundred and twenty of them escaped and defected to Caesar. twenty two.Just before this time, the envoys from the city of Ursho, who were captured in the town of Ategua, set off home, accompanied by some of our party, to report to the people of Ursho what had happened, And ask them what fantasies they can have of Gnaeus Pompey, don't they see that these men, taken to the city as rescuers, have slaughtered their own masters, and have committed many other crimes? Crime? When these people came to Ursho, except for those from the city, our personnel—all of them were some Roman knights and senators—did not enter the town easily, and the two sides exchanged opinions by sending messages.When the envoys returned to the place of our personnel outside the city, the townspeople followed with a group of troops and killed our envoys.Only two of them escaped alive and reported what happened to Caesar... They sent scouts to Ategua.When they realized that the report of the messengers was indeed true and that the events had happened as they had reported, immediately a group of the townspeople assembled and began to throw stones at the man who had killed the messenger, and began to beat him with his hands. , because what he did caused his own death.The man escaped with difficulty, and asked the townspeople for permission to go to Caesar as an envoy, saying that he would satisfy Caesar.When they gave him the opportunity, he left there, and went out to muster an armed force, and when he had gathered a considerable force, he was taken into the town at night, by intrigue, and made a great war in the city. Massacred on a large scale, killed those who led the opposition against him, and took the town for himself.Just this time ago, fugitive slaves reported that the property of the townspeople was being sold; that no one was allowed to step out of the ramparts except those who did not girdle; for since the day that Ategua was taken , many people have already fled to Baituria in panic, thinking that there was no hope of success; if anyone defected from us to them, he was forced into the light army and earned a day's money. Less than seventeen aspen.

twenty three.During the time that followed, Caesar moved his camp nearer, and built a fortified branch line to the Salsum.While our army was concentrating on their work, many enemies rushed down from a high place and charged at them. When our army could not get away, they fired a large number of arrows and spears, wounding many of our army.This is just as Ennius said: "Our army is equipped with easy numbers."Therefore, when our army saw that it had retreated beyond its usual habit, two centurions of the fifth legion ran across the river and rearranged their ranks.While they were fighting with extraordinary valor and driving back a large number of the enemy, one of the two was killed by a mass of spears thrown from the heights.His companion, who was at the beginning of an outnumbered struggle, stumbled and fell when, finding himself surrounded by the enemy, he tried to fall back.When the valiant centurion was slain, many enemies came up to seize his ornaments, but our cavalry had already driven across the river, and drove the enemy from the lower places to their ramparts.Overzealously they rushed into each other's fortifications to kill the enemy, but were cut off by the enemy's cavalry and light soldiers.If it had not been for their bravery, they might have been captured alive, because they were packed tightly in the fortifications.The cavalry had little room to maneuver to defend themselves.In both infantry and cavalry battles, many were killed, including Clodius Arquitius.Although the battles on both sides were fought so closely, our army lost no one except these two centurions who died honorably.

twenty four.The next day, the troops of both sides gathered together in Solikaria.Our army began to build defense lines.When Pompey saw that his access to the fortress called Aspavia, about five leagues from Ucubia, would be cut off by our army, he was compelled to fight.But he still refused to give his enemies a chance to fight them in favorable terrain. He ran down from a small mound and rushed to seize a high slope, trying to force Caesar to fight against them when there was no other way. Fight him at the disadvantage below.In this way, the troops of both sides rushed to occupy the high slope, and our army who climbed up first stopped them and drove them back to the flat ground.This move enabled our army to win a victory. The opponent retreated everywhere, and our army went back and forth to kill a large part of them.It is the mountains, not their valor, that save the enemy, and if it had not been for the twilight they would not have been able to hold even these mountains, which were their saviors, though our numbers were small.In this way, they still lost 323 light soldiers and 138 legionnaires, not including those who lost their weapons and equipment.In this way, the death of the two centurions yesterday was made up for by the punishment received by the enemy.

25.The next day, Pompey the younger's army came to the same place as before, using their old tactics, because their troops, except cavalry, did not dare to meet even in a very favorable place.While our army was working on the fortifications, their cavalry began to charge forward, and their legionnaires, who usually followed the cavalry, clamored loudly to show them their skills, in order to convince our army of them. Completely ready for a fight.Our army advanced a long way from the low-lying valleys, and stopped at a more favorable place on the plain. However, there is no doubt that none of them dared to go to the flat ground to fight our army. Antistius Tubio's men, who were confident of their prowess, began to ridicule that no one in our army could compare with him.So, just like the legendary confrontation between Achilles and Memnon, Quintus Pompey Nigel, a Roman knight in Italy, ran out from our army's position and stepped forward to fight him.Antistheus was so murderous that everyone's attention was shifted from the engineering to the fighting scene, and the arrays of the two sides were also pulled apart face to face.Because the two fighters are evenly matched, and the winner is unpredictable, so for a while it seems that the duel between these two people is the final resolution and conclusion of the battle.Everyone was full of anxiety and expectation, and everyone was excited by the enthusiasm of the fighters and cheerers on their side.These two warriors were full of spirits, and rushed to fight on the flat ground, and the carvings on their shields that symbolized their heroic deeds were shining... If it were not for the attack of the enemy cavalry mentioned above, their confrontation might have really ended This battle... Caesar once deployed some light soldiers not far from the fortifications as a cover. When our cavalry retreated to the camp during the retreat, and the enemy followed them wantonly, these light soldiers shouted everywhere , rushed towards them.This caused a panic among the enemies.Many men were lost in the retreat to their own camp.

26.For the bravery of Cassius' cavalry, Caesar awarded them three thousand denarius, five gold collars to their commander, and two thousand denarius to the light soldiers.On this day, the Roman knights Aulus Bybius, Gaius Flavius, and Aulus Trebelius in Asta fled to join Caesar.Their horses are almost covered with silver.They reported that all the Roman knights in Pompey's camp had sworn oaths to flee, were shut up because of a slave's tip-off, and they themselves were among them, but found an opportunity to escape.Also on this day, a letter from Gnaeus Pompey to Ursau was intercepted, which read "S.V.G.E.V. Although we have been lucky so far to be able to Drive the enemy away if you want, but if they will give me the opportunity to fight in a favorable position. I can certainly end the war sooner than you think. But they dare not send their inexperienced new The army marched to the field, and thus has been nailed here by our army, and the war has dragged on. They besieged town after town, and from these towns they took supplies for themselves. Therefore, I will not only protect our side. These towns, and to end the war at the first opportunity. I want to send you . . . a few battalions. Once we go out and cut them off, they'll have to fight."

27.later.When our army was busy building fortifications and had no time to take care of it, some cavalry who were collecting wood in the olive palm grove were killed by the enemy.Some slaves came to us and reported that since March 5th, the day of the fighting at Solicaria, there has been great panic, and Attius Varus is in charge of the outlying forts.On this day, Pompey moved his camp to an olive grove facing Spalis, and stopped there.Caesar also set off to that place, observing the moon in advance, about the sixth hour.When Pompey thus moved his camp, he ordered the remaining garrison to set fire to the town of Ucupi, and they did not retire to the camp until they had burned the town.Caesar then went on to attack the city of Ventebo, and when it had surrendered he went on to Carruga, where he set up camp just opposite Pompey's camp.Pompey burned the town because it closed its doors to his garrison.A soldier who killed his brother in the camp was caught by our army and beat to death with a stick.From this region Caesar entered the plain of Munda, and once there he pitched his camp facing Pompey.

28.On the second day, when Caesar was about to lead the army on the road, the scouts brought news that Cheng Pei had been in formation since the third watch.Hearing this report, Caesar raised his banner as a sign of battle.Pompey brought the troops out because he had sent a message to his supporters, the Ursho, saying: Caesar would not go down the valley because most of his army consisted of inexperienced recruits .The letter was a great morale boost to the town's inhabitants, and Pompey himself relied on the idea that he could do what he wanted without fail.Because the place where he camped was not only protected by the natural terrain, but also protected by the fortifications of the town itself.As we pointed out earlier, this is a plain area, surrounded by continuous mountains, with only a few plains interspersed here and there.That was the situation at the time.

29.Between these two camps was a plain about five leagues long, so that Pompey's army had a double security, the town and the height of the ground.The plain stretched evenly from the point closest to the town to a river in front of it, so that Caesar's army was about to drive up to Pompey's army.The journey was difficult because there were many swamps and mud holes on the right side of the river.Therefore, when Caesar saw that the opponent's array had been deployed, he only thought that the enemy would run forward and fight in the middle of the plain, which was a place that both sides could see at a glance. It was sunny again, especially tempting for the cavalry, a godsend for fighting.Our army is very happy, but there are also some people who are uneasy. What they think of is the career and destiny of each of them. Now that such a critical juncture has come, no one is sure that they will be able to get it in a moment. What a result.When our army caught up to fight like this, I thought in my heart that the enemy would do the same.But on the contrary, they didn't dare to go far away from the town's fortifications, and they just stayed close to the city wall.So our army moved forward.In spite of the favorable ground which tempts the enemy from time to time, and prompts them to take advantage of this favorable position and win at one stroke, they still, in their old fashion, leave neither the heights nor the town.When our army advanced slowly for a certain distance and rushed to a place close to the river, the opponent still insisted on that steep place and refused to leave.

30.Their line consisted of thirteen legions, flanked by cavalry and 6,000 light-armed men, to which were added roughly the same number of allies.Our army consisted of eighty battalions and eight thousand cavalry.However, when our army has advanced to the rugged place on the edge of the plain, the enemy is waiting for work on the high ground, making it very dangerous for our army to continue advancing to the high place.Seeing this, Caesar began to set limits on the operation, lest they should be rash and cause trouble.But when this instruction reached people's ears, they all thought that the chance to decide the outcome had been delayed again, and felt very impatient and angry.This delay animated the enemies, who believed that nothing but timidity prevented Caesar's army from advancing to the decisive battle.So they advanced a little towards the rugged place, as if they wanted to give our army a chance to fight, but our army still had to take great risks to reach them.On our side, the Tenth Legion remained in the old quarters on the right, and the Third and Fifth Legions, with other allies and cavalry, were on the left.With the shouts, the battle began.

31.Although our army was ahead in terms of bravery, the opponent tried to resist by taking advantage of the condescending terrain.The shouts from both sides were so violent, and the arrows and stones fired during the impact were so dense that our army almost lost confidence in victory.In essence, shock and shouting, the two main means of intimidating the enemy, can be said to be equal to each other.Although both sides entered the battle with equal valor by using both means, a large number of the enemy were struck by the lances thrown by our army, and died in heaps.As we have already said, on the right flank of our army were the soldiers of the Tenth Legion, who, although few in number, were able to confuse the enemy with their exploits, and they began to press violently on this side. The enemy, driving them from their position, made the enemy fear that this flank would be taken by our army, and began to bring another corps from the right flank to support.When this legion was about to move, Caesar's cavalry also advanced on the enemy's left flank, and therefore, however valiantly they fought.There has never been a chance to rush to this front to support.What rushed into people's ears at this time was a mixture of shouts, groans, and the clanging of swords, just as Sinius said, "toe to toe, sword to sword." In the middle, our army began to force them back, and the town just gave them cover.Thus, precisely on the day of the festival of the god Liber, our army was defeated and routed, and the enemy might have been wiped out if they had not fled back to the place from which they started.In this battle the enemy lost about thirty thousand men--more, never less--plus Labinus and Attius Varus, both of whom were buried where they died , besides three thousand Roman knights, some from the capital, some from the provinces.Our side lost 3,000 men, partly cavalry, partly infantry, and 500 were wounded.Thirteen of the enemy's eagles were captured, along with many company-marked axes.

32. ... Those who escaped took Mundi as their retreat base, and our army had to launch a siege against it.Shields and light spears picked up from enemy weapons were planted as fences.The corpses were piled up as barriers, and on top of them were the severed heads inserted on the end of the sword, forming a circle facing the city wall. A badge of valor to cause panic in the enemy.After surrounding the town with heavy spears and javelins picked up from the dead of the enemy, the Gauls began to attack it.Valerius the Younger escaped from the battle and fled to Corduba with a few cavalry.Report what happened to Sextus Pompey over there.After learning of these circumstances, Pompey distributed all the money on his side to the cavalry around him, told the people in the town that he was going to negotiate peace with Caesar, and left the town in the second watch .On the other hand, Gnaeus Pompey, accompanied by a few cavalry and some infantry, hastened to his naval fortress, Cartea, a town a hundred and seventy miles from Corduba.When he came to the milestone eight miles from Carthia, Publius Caucilius, who was once appointed to preside over Pompey's camp, sent a messenger to Pompey with instructions, saying: He feels unwell and needs to Send a soft sedan chair to carry him into the city.Bearers were sent out to carry Pompey into Cartea.His supporters gathered in the house to which he had been carried, and it was believed that he had come secretly, to inquire what his plans were for the war.When many people arrived, Pompey got out of the sedan chair and begged them to take him in and protect him. 33.After the battle, Caesar surrounded Munda with a siege, and moved himself towards Corduba.Those who survived the massacre and fled over there occupied the bridge.When Caesar got there, they began to taunt us, saying, "We have so few survivors from the battle, why don't we have a place to escape?" So they ran down the bridge to fight .Caesar crossed the river and pitched his camp.Scarpula, chief of all these rebels, slaves, and freedmen, when he came to Corduba from the fighting, gathered his slaves and freedmen, and made them build a funeral pyre for himself , and ordered that the finest table be prepared for him, and the richest bedding laid, and he distributed the money and silver to his slaves on the spot.Then he went to drink and merry himself, and from time to time anointed himself with pitch and pine oil, until at last he commanded a slave and a freedman--the latter being his concubine--one to cut his throat, and the other to light funeral pyre. 34.As soon as Caesar pitched his camp facing the town, a quarrel arose among the inhabitants of the town, those who favored Caesar and those who favored Pompey, and shouts and insults reached our camp.In the town were two legions raised from the fugitives, some of whom were slaves of the townspeople, freed by Sextus Pompey.They began to flee as soon as Caesar arrived.The Thirteenth Legion set out to defend the city.Those of the Ninth Legion, who had occupied part of the towers and walls at the beginning of the battle, again sent messengers to Caesar, asking him to send legions in to support them.When the fugitives learned of this, they set fire to the town.But they were defeated by us, and killed twenty-two thousand people, not counting those who died outside the city.Thus Caesar took the town.While he was here, those survivors of the war who we said were besieged in Mongolia made a breakout, and many of them were killed and then deported back again. 35.When Caesar was on his way to Hispalis, messengers came to him begging for forgiveness.When he reached that town, therefore, he sent Caninius, his lieutenant, into the town with a garrison, while he himself pitched camp near it.At this time, there were a large number of Pompey's supporters in the town, and they were very angry that they had accepted the garrison into the city without the knowledge of a man named Philo.This Philo was one of the most ardent adherents of the Pompeians, and well known throughout Lusitania.At this time he stole away to Lusitania without telling our garrison.At Rennium he encountered a barbarian, Keccilius Niggle, with a large Lusitanian army.Returning again to Hispalis, he was taken into the city by night, slaughtered the garrison and sentries, barricaded the gates, and resumed his campaign. 36.While these events were going on, messengers came from Cartea to report that Pompey had fallen into their hands.For they had closed their doors to Caesar in the past, and now wanted to atone for their guilt by this little merit.The Lusitanians at Hispalis fought without a break.Caesar saw that if he tried to take the town, these desperate men would set fire to the town and destroy the city.After the discussion, he deliberately gave the Lusitanians a chance to break out of the siege at night. They did not expect this to be deliberately arranged, so they broke out. Our army was busy fighting the fire, so they ran away, but they were all wiped out by our cavalry.In this way, the town was recovered.Caesar again began to rush towards Asta, and messengers from this town came to him to surrender.As for those who escaped from the battle and took refuge in the city of Munda, many surrendered after the long siege, and when they were incorporated into a regiment, they swore an oath among themselves and agreed As soon as the signal was sent at night, the people in the city broke out and rushed out, and they themselves killed in the camp.After this plan was learned, the third watch on the next night, with a password, they were all killed outside the barrier. 37.While Caesar was marching all the way to attack the rest of the towns, the residents of Cartea had already started a dispute over Pompey. After entering Neijiang, the gates of the city were closed, and blood was shed on a large scale.The wounded Pompey seized twenty ships and fled.As soon as the news reached Didionus, who was commanding a fleet at Gades, he immediately set off in pursuit.Cartea also had infantry and cavalry to catch up, and chased quickly all the way.On the fourth day of the voyage, due to lack of preparations when setting off from Cartea, Pompeii ran out of drinking water and could only move closer to land.While they were fetching water, the fleet of Didius caught up, some of the ships were captured, and the rest were burned. 38.Pompey fled with a small number of men, occupying a place with difficult and defensible terrain.The battalions of cavalry and infantry sent after him learned of this through the advance scouts and set off day and night.Pompey's shoulder and left leg were so badly wounded, and a sprained ankle so hindered him so much, that when he got there he had to be carried into the bunker in a soft sedan chair.As is customary in military affairs, a Lusitanian sent from his bodyguard on scouting work, was spotted by Caesar's troops, who were soon surrounded by cavalry and infantry.This is a place that is difficult to approach. This is why Pompey chose a place with a difficult terrain for himself. In this way, no matter how many people bring the attack, as long as a few people are condescending, it is enough to guard. .As soon as our army arrived at the place, when they approached it, they were driven back by light spears.While they were retreating, the enemy approached so aggressively that they had to stop their advance immediately.After repeating this several times, it can be seen that this is a very dangerous thing for our army.As a result, the opponent built a circle of fortifications, and our side quickly pulled up a similar wall along the ridge in order to be able to fight the opponent evenly.When these people see this, they want to save themselves by running away. 39.As we pointed out above, little Pompey was wounded and sprained his ankle, which hindered his flight at a gallop, and the terrain was so narrow that neither horse nor other means of transportation could help him escape to safety.Our army beheaded everywhere.Little Pompey was cut off from the fortifications and lost his supporters. He fled into a valley and hid in a cave formed by the erosion of the ground. If the captives had not recruited him, our army would have been very difficult to find him. .In this way, he was killed there.While Caesar was still at Gades, Pompey the younger's head was brought to Hispalis on the twelfth of April, where it was exhibited. 40.The killing of Gnaeus Pompey the Younger pleased Didius, whom we have spoken of, and he withdrew to a nearby fortress, and brought some ships ashore for repairs.Those Lusitanians who had escaped from the battle still assembled under their banners, and with a large force, returned to Didius.Though Didius did not relax his watch over the ships, their attacks sometimes drew him away from the fortress.Thus they set a trap in the battle which took place almost every day, and divided their forces into three groups, one of which was ready to burn the ship; These are to be stationed where they cannot be seen; the rest are openly to fight.Thus, when Didius came out of the fort with his troops to drive off the enemy, the Lusitanians hoisted the pennant, and the ships were set on fire, while the men who had come out to fight from the fort were pursuing those who saw When the gangsters turned back with the same banner, they were surrounded by ambushing people coming out from behind.Didius and many others were slain in a heroic struggle.Many men in the course of the battle captured some of the small boats anchored on the shore, and many others swam to ships anchored in deep water, pulled anchor, and sailed out to sea with oars, and saved their lives.The Lusitanians took the spoils.Caesar left Gades and hurried back to Hispalis. 41.Fabius Maximus, who was left behind to attack Munda's defenders, besieged day and night with a series of siege fortifications.The people who were trapped inside started to use force from the gang, and after killing many people, they broke out again.Our army did not miss the opportunity to retake the town, and captured the rest alive, numbering as many as thirteen thousand.Our army set out to Ursau; the town was defended by a great fortification, so that both its artificial fortifications and its natural terrain were sufficient to meet the enemy.In addition, apart from a source of water in the city, this town has no water anywhere within about eight Luoji around the city. This is also a very beneficial thing for the residents of the town.Furthermore, the materials necessary for the construction of the fortification, such as the timber which is commonly customary for towers and shields, could not be found within six miles of the neighborhood.Pompey, for the safety of the town under siege, had cut down all the timber round the town, and concentrated it in the town.In this way, our army had no choice but to go to the newly conquered Munda to transport timber here. 42.While these work was going on at Munda and Ursho, Caesar left Gades and returned to Hispalis.On the second day of his arrival he called a general assembly and reminded them that, from the very beginning of his tenure as treasurer, this province, more than any other, had received his attention and All the benefits of this province within his power at that time.Later, when he was promoted to magistrate, he asked the senate to abolish the tax imposed by Metellus, so that the province could not pay the tax; He had introduced the deputies to the Senate, and made many enmities in defense of their public and private affairs.Similarly, during his consulship, although he was not in the local area, he was also within the scope of his own powers and awarded many preferential treatment to the province.But he knew that, both in this war and in the past, they had forgotten these favors, and were no longer indebted to himself and the Roman people for them.He continued: "You know well the law of peoples and the example set by the citizens of Rome, yet you continue to brutalize like barbarians the sacred magistrates of the Roman people, and in broad daylight in the middle of the marketplace You have plotted the murder of Cassius so badly. You are so hostile to peace that this province cannot be without the legions of the Roman people for a day; It was you who were never peaceful in time of peace and brave in time of war. It was you who took in Gnaeus Pompey Jr. when he fled, leaving him for such a private use only state officials could use The ax and the military and political power, let him kill many citizens, and at your instigation, recruited troops against the Roman people, and left the provinces in ruins. Whom do you hope to conquer? Have you not considered , even if I are destroyed, the Roman people will not only have legions that can deal with you, but can even tear down the sky, because of their glorious achievements and heroism...
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