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Chapter 17 Alexandria War 61-78

Civil War 凯撒 6761Words 2018-03-21
61.Maclus was far stronger in infantry, as all his regiments were battle-hardened veterans.Cassius relied less on the valor of his legions than on their loyalty.Therefore, when the two camps have been pitched face to face, and Maclus has selected a favorable terrain, he can build a camp to cut off Cassius' water, Cassius fears that this control will be in the hands of others. , and the country that was hostile to him fell into some kind of siege, so he quietly left the camp at night and marched quickly to Uriah.He believed it was a town that was true to itself.There he pitched his camp close to the wall of the city. Uriah was situated on a very high hill, so that the nature of the place and the fortifications of the town made it difficult for them to His camp is safe on all sides, and is not afraid of attack.Maclus followed him after him, and set up his camp as near as possible to Uriah's camp.After surveying the ground, he finally resorted to the inevitable tactic, as he had to avoid combat—if the opportunity presented itself, he would be irresistible to excited soldiers—and to prevent getting stuck. Sius wandered farther and farther, causing more towns to suffer the same fate as the Cordubas.He therefore planted fortifications in many suitable places, and at the same time built a series of fortifications around the town, enclosing both Uriah and Cassius.But Cassius sent out all his cavalry before these fortifications were completed, he believed.It will be of great help to them if they can prevent Maclus from gathering and transporting grain. On the contrary, if they are also blocked in the encirclement, they will become useless and heavy burdens, only consuming their own precious food. .

62.A few days later, King Bogud received a letter from Cassius and came here with his army.He brought with him a legion, to which he added battalions of Spanish Confederates.For at this time, as often happens in civil wars, some Spanish states actively supported Cassius; only Maclus was more numerous.Bogood and his army came to the outer fortifications of Marklus, and fierce battles broke out between the two sides, and it happened many times in succession. The god of fate brought victory to one side and then to the other.However, Maclus was never expelled from the fortifications. 63.At the same time, Lepidus also brought the battalions of the Thirty-fifth Legion, a large number of cavalry and other allied troops from the province near Spain to Uriah. His purpose was to deal with Cassie in an impartial manner. Urs and Maclus' dispute.As soon as he arrived, Maclus did not hesitate to surrender himself to him at his disposal.On the contrary, Cassius still stayed in his camp. Maybe he felt that he had more reasons than Maclus, or he was afraid that the other party's obedience had already catered to Lepidus's wishes.Lepidus pitched his camp near Uriah, and joined Maclus completely.He did not allow a fight, but invited Cassius out, and pledged his honor to all proposals made.For a long time, Cassius was puzzled, not knowing what he should do and how much he should trust Lepidus, but he also felt that if he insisted on not giving an inch, he would never be able to help himself. One intends to find a way out.He therefore demanded that the fortifications be dismantled and that he be free to go.This resulted in not only an armistice, but almost peace.The fortifications were dismantled, and the sentries on the fortifications were also removed.Suddenly, out of everyone's expectation--if Cassius is really included among the people mentioned here, because there are some people doubting that he knew it--the king's allies attacked Maclus's camp far away from the king. The nearest bunker, where many of the soldiers were trapped, might have suffered still greater losses had not Lepidus, in his anger, hastily dispatched reinforcements to separate the battle.

64.By this time a passage had been opened for Cassius, and Macclus united the camp with Lepidus.So at the same time Lepidus and Macclus set out with their troops for Corduba, and Cassius for Carmo.It was also at this time that Trebonius took charge of the province as consul.As soon as he knew of his coming, Cassius sent the legions and cavalry who were with him to the winter quarters, while he himself hastily packed up all his belongings and set off for Maraca, where, although the season was unfit for sailing, , he boarded anyway, as he himself declared, unwilling to let himself fall into the hands of Lepidus, Trebonius, and Macclus; That way, he would keep himself from traversing in disgrace through a province that had largely betrayed him; That goes in someone else's hands.According to the winter climate, he went well at first. When he hid in the Hiberus River to avoid night sailing, it became a bit windy and windy, but he still believed that there was no danger in sailing out. After driving the boat out, he encountered a rough wave at the mouth of the river. The huge momentum of the current prevented him from turning the boat around and turning back. I also died.

65.As soon as Caesar arrived in Syria from Egypt, he learned from the people from Rome, and also from the letters from the capital, that the administrative organs of Rome were very bad and incompetent, and that none of the official affairs of the country were handled smoothly. Dang dang.Dangerous upheavals arose from strife among the tribunes, and, through the ambition and connivance of the commanders of the legions and those who commanded them, many violations of the customs and morals of the army were perpetrated, and the solemn discipline of the army was broken down. up.It seemed that all these situations were pressing for his presence.But despite this, he still considered his first job to be to make the provinces and regions he passed through arranged in such a way that there was no need to worry about internal disputes when he left, to accept a set of law and order, and to get rid of Fear of foreign aggression.These things, he hoped to be done quickly in Syria, Silesia and Asia, because these provinces are not disturbed by war now, but in Bithynia and Pontus, the burden on his shoulders seems to be much heavier. .He heard that Farnacus hadn't withdrawn from Bendu, and he didn't expect this man to withdraw automatically. The victory over Domitius Calvinus made him look very proud.Invincible.Caesar stopped there in all the more important states, distributed the rewards due to individuals and states, and investigated and decided old disputes.The national workers, the port owners, and the monarchs, as the neighbors of the province, all came to him one after another. He accepted the loyalty they expressed, and after asking them to protect and defend the province, he regarded them as his own. Send them back like the friendliest of the Roman people.

66.After spending a few days in this province, he surrendered the legions and Syria to his friend and kinsman Sextus Caesar.He himself set out for Silesia in the same fleet with which he had come.He summoned all the nations of that province to Tarsus, the most famous and formidable city in all Silesia.There he arranged all the affairs of the province and the neighboring countries, but he was anxious to set off to fight, and not wanting to delay, he marched hastily through Cappadocia, stopping at Mazaka for two days. Days later, arrive at Comana, where the oldest and holiest Temple of Bellona in Silesia is located.The temple was so revered that the people of the country unanimously recognized that the priests of this goddess were second only to the king in rank, power, and influence.Caesar adjudicated this priesthood to Lycomedes, a very noble Bithynian, born of the royal family of Cappadocia, who claimed it by unquestioned right of succession, It's just that for a long time, due to the shift of fortune of his ancestors, the right of succession fell apart, and the transmission of this priesthood was interrupted.As for both Ariobazanes and his brother Arialates, since they both served the republic well, in order to avoid Ariarates' claim to his ancestral kingdom, or to avoid him as a kingdom Heir to Ariobazanes, who threatened Ariobazanes, Caesar ceded to him part of Minor Armenia, and handed him over to Ariobazanes as a vassal under his jurisdiction.Caesar himself began to complete his march with the same rapid speed.

67.When Caesar approached the border between Pontus and Gaul-Greece, Deotarus came to see him. Although he was the quarter-lord of almost the whole Gaul-Greece at that time, the other quarter-lords argued with him He believed that he should not be the monarch regardless of law or tradition. Even so, he was undisputedly recognized by the Senate as the king of Minor Armenia.Now, throwing off the regalia of a king, and dressed not only like a commoner, but in the garb of a sinner, he begged Caesar to spare himself, saying that there was no Caesar in the country where he was. For this reason he was obliged to join Pompey's camp under duress by the army and orders, and it was not for him to judge the disputes among the Roman people. authority.

68.In answering him, Caesar referred to the favors which he had accorded him by government decree when he was consul, and pointed out to him that his apology could never be accepted as an excuse for his rash actions.For a prudent and industrious man like him must know in whose hands Italy and Rome are, on which side the Senate and the Roman people are, and on which side the Republic is, and on which side Lucius Lentulus and Guy Who was the consul after Yoss Maclus.Nevertheless, Caesar said he could see in his past merits, his old acquaintances and friendships, his rank and age, and his many guests and friends who came from all over the world to intercede for Deotarus. As a friend, forgive him for what he did.Caesar also said that he would study later on the issues that were being debated among the four-divided monarchs.Then he bade him put on the king's clothes again, but ordered Deotarus to bring to him his legions, composed of natives, but organized according to our arms and discipline, and the whole cavalry. war.

69.When he reached Pontus, he gathered all his troops in one place.His army can only be regarded as mediocre in terms of numbers and combat experience.Only the Sixth Army, which he had brought with him from Alexandria, was a regiment of weather-beaten and dangerous veterans, but had been greatly reduced by the difficult marches by land and sea, and by constant fighting, it Not even a thousand people are satisfied.In addition to the sixth legion, there were three other legions, one of Deotarus, and the other two, which I have already described participating in the battle of Gnaeus Domitius against Farnacus. .At this time, Farnacus sent envoys to Caesar, and first begged Caesar not to enter his territory with hostility, and promised Caesar that Farnacus was willing to carry out all the instructions of Caesar.The envoy specifically mentioned that Farnacus had refused to send reinforcements to support Pompey against Caesar; on the contrary, Deotarus sent reinforcements.But Deotarus' request was still satisfied.

70.Caesar replied.If Farnax fulfills his promise, he will treat him fairly and fairly.Nevertheless, he pointed out to the envoys in his usual gentle and calm tone that they need not blame him for bringing up Deotarus, nor should they blame him for not sending reinforcements to Pompey. Favorable things boast too much.Though nothing ever pleases him more than to forgive a beggar, if it is the interest of the state that is trampled upon in the province, it cannot be pardoned for a personal wrong done to him.Moreover, the so-called merit they mention, that Farnacus, who foresaw Pompey's defeat, and did not send reinforcements, was more beneficial to Farnacus himself than to Caesar, who was given victory by the immortal gods. some.As for the heinous and serious crimes committed by Farnacus against the Roman citizens who were doing business in Pontus, since it was impossible to restore the original situation, he could only forgive him.In fact, neither the life of the murdered can be restored, nor can those who have been cut off be restored to humanity, although this kind of punishment suffered by Roman citizens is really crueler than death.But Farnacus must immediately evacuate Pontus, the taxpayers' slaves must be returned to them, and all other reparations to the allies and Roman citizens must be done as long as he can.If all these were done, then it was possible to send him the tributes and gifts which a general usually receives from his friends when he is victorious—for by this time Farnacus had sent him a golden crown.Having given these answers, he sent his messengers back.

71.All these, Farnax is very happy to agree to come down.He hoped that Caesar's haste would compel him to take no time to ask the truth, and to trust his word without hesitation, that he might hurry with dignity to more pressing matters, for there is no one who is unaware of the many reasons that are urging him. Go back to Rome.So he began to cheat in everything, procrastinating about things, asking to postpone the retreat, and messing up treaties.Aware of this man's cunning, Caesar had no choice but to adopt the tactic that is often used at ordinary times and out of nature-that is, to make an assault that caught the opponent by surprise.

72.Zela is a town located in Pontus. Although it is on a plain, it is very dangerous and fortified. Its battlements are built on a natural, but almost artificially carved high ground. out of the surrounding ground.All around this town are high mountains one after another, and there are valleys tangent to each other. There is a highest mountain in this place. Greatly known in this part of the country for its defeat, there are roads along the hills leading to the town, not more than three miles from Zela.It was here that Farnax repaired the old fortress left by his father, which had been lucky, and occupied this area with all his troops. 73.Caesar encamped five leagues from the enemy, and he saw that the valley in which the king's camp had taken cover could have covered one of his own at the same distance, provided the enemy did not take that place first, because It was much nearer to the king's camp.He ordered the materials for the ramparts to be brought to the fortifications.These things were quickly collected. On the fourth watch of the second night, he took all the legions and left the camp lightly. All the cumbersome luggage remained in the camp, and the enemy took the place by surprise at dawn.This is where Mithridates defeated Triarius.He ordered that all the accumulated materials for the fortification should be carried thither by slaves from the camp, so that no one of his soldiers would need to leave the place of the fortification.For the valley which separated the enemy's camp was not more than a mile wide from the point where Caesar began to build the camp. 74.Seeing this suddenly at dawn, Farnacus deployed all his troops before the camp.Because the middle ground between the two sides is very rough, Caesar believed that this may be the daily queue training that the king is used to, or he wanted to lure us to put more manpower on the armed guard to hinder the progress of the project, or he wanted to To show the confidence of the king, to show that Farnax's defense of the place was not based mainly on fortifications, but on troops.Therefore, Caesar ignored his obstruction, except that only the front line of soldiers was deployed in front of the barrier, and the rest of the army remained on the construction site to continue working.Perhaps it was the good fortune of the place that made Farnax think so suddenly of the war; perhaps it was driven by divination and religion, which we have heard afterwards to be of great belief in. ; it may also be because he thinks that our army is armed with very few people-because he believes that the large number of slaves who are carrying materials for the barrier project according to their daily work habits are people who have been drawn from the soldiers; For he had great confidence in his battle-hardened army, which, as his messengers boasted, had fought and won twenty-two times.Besides, he despised our army, knowing that it had been defeated by him under the leadership of Domitius.In short, having decided to fight, he began to run down the very steep precipice, and just as Caesar was laughing at his bluff, at the way he packed his troops so tightly that no sane enemy would want to go up, However, Farnax had already led the army in a battle formation, and started to climb the steep valley with the same firm steps when he ran down the cliff. 75.This incredible indiscretion and self-confidence alarmed Caesar, who was neither expecting nor preparing for it, when he recalled his soldiers from their fortifications and ordered them to take up arms; Facing the enemy, arrange them and deploy them according to the battle array.The sudden commotion caused by these incidents caused great uneasiness to our soldiers.While the ranks were still in formation, the king's four-horse chariots with scythes, which further alarmed the scattered soldiers, were soon overwhelmed by a mass of arrows and spears.After them came the ranks of the enemy, fighting with shouts.The terrain has given our army a great help, but the greater help is the favor of the immortal gods, because although the gods have a hand in the success or failure of all wars, especially in places where human strategies are powerless, they Especially show off your supernatural powers. 76.The hand-to-hand battle started tenaciously and fiercely.On the right flank, the Sixth Army, composed of veterans, was deployed there, showing the first signs of victory.While the enemy on this side was being driven down the slope, on the left and in the centre, though much more slowly, but with the help of the same gods, the king's whole army was also routed.After being repulsed, they hurried back from the uneven ground with a quick pace that can be completely compared with the calmness with which they climbed the rough hillside.As a result, many soldiers were either killed, or were overwhelmed by their own people, and crushed below. Those who could escape with lightness and vigor also lost their weapons. After crossing the valley, even if they were in danger on the high ground to guard, for without arms, the favorable position could no longer help them.The victory made our army full of energy, and they climbed the rough hillside without hesitation and captured the enemy's fortifications.The enemy's camp was quickly taken, although there was resistance from the battalions which Farnax had left behind to guard it.The whole army of Farnacus was either killed or captured, and he himself fled with a few cavalry.He might have been captured alive and handed over to Caesar if our troops had not been busy attacking the camp, which had given him a chance to escape freely. 77.Although Caesar had won many victories, such a victory gave him unimaginable joy, because such a big war was ended by him so quickly, especially when he recalled the sudden situation he faced this time. In times of danger, I feel that I should be all the more grateful for this easy victory in an extremely difficult situation.Bento was thus recovered, and having distributed among the soldiers all the spoils which had been taken from the king, he himself set out on the next day with his cavalry lightly armed, and commanded the Sixth Legion to go also to Italy, to receive its reward and glory. .He sent back the legions of Deotalus, and left both legions in Pontus with Caelius Veninus. 78.Thus he passed through Gallo-Greece and Bithynia, and entered Asia, and in all these provinces he learned of their disputes, and adjudicated, dividing the respective rights and interests of these quartered princes, kings, and states. Jurisdiction.We have said that Mithridates of Pergamon, who fought swiftly and successfully in Egypt, was of noble birth, and was trained and educated for a prince.For Mithridates king of all Asia, seeing his noble birth, took him out of Pergamon when he was very young, and kept him in his camp for many years.Caesar, therefore, now appointed him king of the Bosphorus, formerly under the control of Farnacus, so that, among the provinces, the Roman people, and the barbarians, and hostile princes, there was a very friendly king. Sandwiched in the middle, play the role of protection.And, by right of kinsmen and kinsmen, he also gave him a quarter of Gallo-Greece, which some years before had been occupied and ruled by Deotarus.Nevertheless, he did not linger indefinitely anywhere beyond the exigencies of the troubled capital would permit.Once things had been arranged extremely smoothly and swiftly, the trip to Italy was quicker than anyone expected.
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