twenty one.While Caesar was encouraging his men to persevere on bridges and fortifications as much as possible, he himself was equally involved in the danger.Later, when he saw that everyone was retreating, he also retreated into his boat.There were so many people rushing onto the boat after him that it was not only impossible to operate the boat, but it was impossible to leave the shore.Foreseeing what would happen, he threw himself out of the boat, and swam to the other boat, which was anchored some way off, where he sent the skiff to rescue the terrified people, Saved a lot.The ship he was originally on was overweight due to too many soldiers, and the ship sank with him.In this battle about four hundred men were lost among the legionaries, and a little more than this number among the sailors and oarsmen.There the Alexandrians fortified the fort with great fortifications and a multitude of ballistas, cleared the sea of stones, and thereafter used the bridge-hole freely, and sent ships in and out. twenty two.This defeat, far from depressing our soldiers, encouraged and motivated them to carry out large-scale attacks and attack the enemy's projects.In daily battles, as long as the Alexandrians rushed out to break through and had the opportunity to fight, Caesar always achieved great success mainly due to the high morale and unrestrained enthusiasm of his subordinates.His general words of encouragement were far from keeping up with the vigorous efforts and eagerness of the legionaries to fight, and were not so much to encourage them to fight, as to check and restrain them from their final actions. The most dangerous reckless fight. twenty three.The Alexandrians saw that victory would strengthen the Romans, and defeat would inspire them. They knew that the outcome of the war was only these two, and they could not imagine any third way out, so that Be more at ease in your heart.Therefore, whether it was at the advice of the king's friends who were in Caesar's camp at that time, or because of their original plan, the king was notified by secret messengers, and with his consent-we can only guess-they sent messengers Come to Caesar, and ask him to let the king go, and to allow the king to go to his subjects, and say: All the people are against this little girl, against the regent, and against Ganimedes' extreme cruelty. Weary of ruling, they were ready to obey the king and do what he told them to do.If he came forward to ask everyone to form an alliance and friendship with Caesar, everyone would automatically surrender.Never hesitate again because of fear of danger. twenty four.Although Caesar knew very well that they were a deceitful people who always thought the same in their hearts and pretended to be the same on the outside, he still thought it best to be lenient and agree to their request.Because he believed that if their demands were genuine, the king's release would surely keep them loyal; on the contrary, if they demanded the king in order to have a leader in time of war-this seemed more in line with Their natures were better—he thought that fighting a king was, in any case, more honorable and more legitimate than fighting a mob of fugitives.He therefore encouraged the king, and bade him think of his father's kingdom, and sympathize with this glorious country, now shattered by disgraceful fires and wars, and first cry out to bring his subjects to their senses, Then let them continue for a long time, in order to prove their loyalty to the Roman people and Caesar, just as Caesar trusted him so much that he let him go back to the armed enemy.Then, taking his hand, he began to send the almost grown-up child away.But the king's mind was cultivated under the most cunning and cunning education, and he was afraid of dishonoring the old traditions of his nation, so he turned around and begged Caesar not to send him away, and said to see It would have been more heartfelt to see Caesar than to be in his own country.Caesar asked the boy to hold back his tears, and though he could not help feeling a little moved, he assured him that if he really thought so, he would be with him again soon.After speaking, he sent him back to his countrymen.But the king immediately began to wage fierce war against Caesar, as if he had released the cage and let him run free, as if the tears he shed while talking with Caesar were shed from momentary pleasure.Many of Caesar's lieutenants, friends, centurions and soldiers also laughed at Caesar, thinking that he was too kind to be fooled by this cunning boy.It seemed as though Caesar had acted out of sheer benevolence, and not from the most prudent strategy. 25．In spite of their leader, the Alexandrians saw that they were not much strengthened, nor the Romans much weakened, and were grieved to see the soldiers mocking the king for his ignorance and indecision.They felt that their cause was going nowhere, and there were rumors that large reinforcements were coming overland from Syria and Cilicia to support Caesar. Although this news had not yet reached Caesar, the Alexandrians had decided to deal A convoy sent by sea to supply our army launched an interception.Therefore, they sent many light ships to anchor in convenient places outside the mouth of Canopus, where they waited to attack our fleet and supplies.When Caesar learned of this, he ordered his entire fleet to stand ready for dispatch.He placed the fleet under the command of Tiberius Nero.Included in this fleet was the Rhode Island ship.Among them was O'Fraenor, without whom no sea battle was ever fought, and never even the slightest success.For a person who has bestowed favors many times, the god of fate often leaves him with tragic experiences. What is waiting for O'Flanor now is quite different from the past.According to his usual habit, O'Flanor went into battle first, but when he smashed through and sunk an enemy quadreme, he chased another warship for a long distance, and the rest of the ships Unable to keep up with its speed, he was surrounded by the Alexandrians.No boat came up to rescue him, probably because they thought him so brave, and ever so lucky, that he was perfectly capable of defending himself, or because they themselves were afraid.Thus, the only man who succeeded in this battle was killed along with his victorious quadruple. 26．About the same time, Mythridates, king of Pergamon, arrived at Pelusion.This was a man of the most eminent family, both experienced in war and outstanding in courage, and a very loyal and sincere friend of Caesar.At the beginning of the Alexandria War he was sent to Syria and Cilicia to raise reinforcements, and with the sincere assistance of those countries and his own labors he quickly raised a great army which he is now carrying From overland to Pelusion on the border of Egypt and Syria.The town was already guarded there by a strong garrison of Aselas because of its vital position.People usually regard Pharos and Pelusion as the two locks that protect the whole of Egypt. Pelusim guards the land passage, and Pharos guards the sea passage.Mithridates then suddenly surrounded it with a great force, and though the defenders were numerous and the resistance was tenacious, because he had a great number of fresh troops to replace the wounded and weary, and because his attacks were persistent , without stopping for a moment, recovered it on the very day he attacked it, leaving an army of his own to garrison it.After this victory he hastened from the other side to Caesar in Alexandria.Along the way he used the prestige that usually belongs to the victors to draw all the regions he passed into friendly relations with Caesar. 27．Not far from Alexandria is the most famous delta area in the area called "Dalta", because it is named after the letter A.For this part of the Nile's course divides into two ways, separated by a distance, and they gradually diverge farther and farther apart, until they reach near the shore of the sea which the river joins.When the king heard that Mithridates was approaching the place, and knowing that he must cross the river, he sent a large army against him.The King believed that this force, if not able to defeat and destroy Mithridates, would at least hold him there, no doubt.As much as the king wished to defeat him, he would be equally satisfied if he merely held him back from joining Caesar.His first troops, having crossed the river in the delta of Daltai, met Mithridates, and hastily engaged him, in order to gain victory before their comrades who followed.Mithridates, who took great care to fortify the camp, following the custom of our army, resisted their attack; They suddenly broke out from everywhere and killed many of them.If it weren't for the rest of the people relying on their familiarity with the local terrain to hide, and some people retreated to the boat they came across the river, they might all be wiped out.When they recovered a little from their fright, they joined forces with their fellows who had followed them, and rose again to attack Mithridates. 28．Mithridates sent a letter to Caesar, telling him what had happened.The king also learned of this from his own people, and almost at the same moment the king came to attack Mithridates, and Caesar to his aid.The king can use the Nile for navigation relatively quickly, because he has a large and ready fleet in the river.Caesar did not want to go the same way, lest the ships should fight in the Nile, but made a detour to that part of the sea which we have said belongs to Africa.Even so, he went ahead of the king's army, and brought the victorious army of Mithridates to his side safe and sound, before they could attack him.The king encamped his army on a difficult spot, a place of great height in itself, jutting out from the surrounding plain.Its three sides are protected by different barriers, on the one side it reaches the Nile; . 29．Between the king's camp and the route of Caesar's march, there was a small river that emptied into the Nile, with very steep banks, about seven leagues from the king's camp.When the king saw that Caesar was approaching this way, he sent all his cavalry and some selected light infantry to this river to prevent Caesar from crossing the river. A battle of right and wrong, for this place does not allow the brave to have a chance to show their talents, nor does the timid need to risk their lives.The engagement with the Alexandrians dragged on for a long time and was still inconclusive, much to the chagrin of our soldiers and cavalry.At the same time, therefore, some of the German cavalry dispersed in groups looking for a place to ford across the river, and crossed at the very low bank.At the same time, the legionnaires also felled some big trees that could stretch from one bank to the other. After erecting them, they immediately spread a layer of earth on them and ran across the river.So alarmed was their attack that they could only hope for safety in flight, but in vain, for only a few of those who fled fled back to the king, and the rest of the great multitude were almost slain. 30．After this glorious victory, Caesar estimated that his sudden advance would cause great panic among the Alexandrians, so he took advantage of the victory and advanced as far as the king's camp.Noticing that the camp had both strong fortifications for defence, and good natural conditions defending it, and that there were a large number of armed troops gathered on the ramparts, he did not want to let all the way around and fight. , the subordinates who are already very tired, go up to attack the camp.He therefore pitched his camp not very far from the enemy.The next day, he launched an attack on a small village not far from the king's camp. There was a blockhouse built by the king in this small village. In order to be able to hold the village, the king specially built a branch line of fortifications, connecting it with his own camp. Fortifications are connected.Caesar attacked it with all his forces and took it down.Therefore, he wanted to use all his forces, not because he thought it would be difficult to achieve his goal with a small army, but because he wanted to start from this victory and attack the king's camp directly while the Alexandrians were in a panic.Therefore, in pursuit of the Alexandrians who had escaped from the fort, they pursued from the fort to their camp, approaching their fortifications, and at a distance, made a violent attack.Our soldiers could attack the camp from two sides, the side which I have already said can be approached without hindrance, and the other side from the small open space between the camp and the Nile.The largest and most carefully chosen force of the Alexandrians was the garrison on the side most accessible, but it was the garrison on the side of the Nile that was most successful against our army and did the most harm to us, because Our army will be attacked by arrows and stones from two opposite sides, one from the ramparts of the camp, and the other from the river behind, and there are many ships loaded with stone archers and archers, which are also coming to our army. attack. 31．Caesar saw that his soldiers had fought with impossibility to be more valiant, but because of the difficult terrain, they had not been able to achieve much success. He noticed that the highest part of the opponent's camp had been left behind by the Alexandrians. , firstly because its precipitous terrain can protect it, and secondly because those guards have rushed to the places where the battle is taking place with great interest, some are to participate in the battle, and some are to watch the excitement.He therefore ordered several battalions to go there round the camp, and to attack the high ground, and he sent them under the command of Tranus, who was very brave and experienced in combat.When they got there, our army made the most violent attack on the few enemy troops still standing on the fortifications. The shouts and fighting on both sides so frightened the Alexandrians, The place is scurrying.Their panic aroused the strong fighting spirit of our army, and all the camps were attacked almost at the same time. the enemy.Many Alexandrians, in order to escape danger, jumped in groups from the ramparts towards the side near the Nile, and those in front of them fell heavily into the ditch of the fortifications, and died there, but were killed by A more convenient escape route for people behind.It was supposed that the King himself escaped from the camp, and boarded a ship; but afterward a great number of his men swam up to the neighboring ship, and he sank with the ship, for there were too many of them. 32．That's how it ended, fortunately and quickly.Caesar, full of confidence from this great victory, took his cavalry straight to Alexandria by the nearest land route, and entered the city as a victor in the part guarded by the enemy's garrison.He thought that once the enemy heard the news of this battle, they would stop thinking about fighting again, and he was right.Once he was thither, reaping the well-deserved fruits of valor and generosity, the general population of the city threw away their arms, forsook their fortifications, and put on the garments which men are wont to wear when they appeal to their sovereign. , carrying all kinds of holy relics prescribed by the ordinance used to appease the king when he was offended and furious, hurriedly greeted Caesar's arrival, and obeyed his orders.Caesar accepted their surrender and comforted them.Then, passing through the enemy's fortifications, he came to the part of the city which had belonged to him, amidst the warm congratulations of his men, who rejoiced not only in the war and the happy ending of the battle, but in Because he came to them on this occasion. 33．Taking control of Egypt and Alexandria, Caesar still placed on the throne those whom the old Ptolemy wrote in his will and asked the people of Rome not to change. The eldest of the two boys, the king, was dead, and Caesar put The kingdom was given to his youngest son and Cleopatra, the eldest of his two daughters, who had been his faithful patron.Arsinore, the second daughter, whom we have said Ganimedes had long and brutally ruled in her name, resolved to let her leave the country, lest the kingship should not be consolidated in the lapse of time in these troubled times. Among the sexual people, a new division has arisen.He took the Sixth Corps of veterans with him, and kept all the rest.so that those who hold the kingship may rule more strongly, because they have been loyal to Caesar's friendship, so they cannot be loved by their subjects, and they have only been on the throne for a few days, and they have not yet accumulated. Come prestige.At the same time, he thinks, that if the kings remain faithful to us, our army can be their security, and if they are ungrateful, this same guardian army can enforce, which is to the dignity of our country, and to the public good, All helpful.When everything was thus arranged, he set out on his own to go to Syria. 34．While these things were going on in Egypt, King Deotarus came to Domitius Calvinus, who had been left by Caesar to preside over Asia and the neighboring provinces, and asked him not to leave his own kingdom of Minor Armenia alone. Cappadocia, the kingdom of Cappadocia and Ariobazanes, was occupied and ravaged by Farnasis, saying that he could not carry out his decree, nor could he Pay the money promised to Caesar.Domitius not only considered that this sum was necessary for military expenses, but also thought that it would be a detriment to the Roman people and to the victorious Gaius if the territories of his allies and friends were taken by foreign princes. Caesar's insult, contempt for himself.Therefore, he immediately sent envoys to Farnasis, telling him to withdraw from Armenia and Cappadocia, and not to offend the rights and dignity of the Roman people while they were engaged in civil war.He believed that the warning would have been stronger if he had brought his army closer to the opponent's territory.So he himself hastened to the army, brought out one of the three legions, the thirty-sixth, and sent the other two to Egypt for Caesar.Caesar had written to request them.But one of these two legions, being sent overland through Syria, was not in time for the battle of Alexandria.Gnaeus Domitius added to his thirty-sixth legion the two legions of King Deotarus, which had been established by the king for many years, and which were entirely Modeled on the discipline and armed training of our army.To this he added a hundred horsemen, and begged the same number from Ariobatones.He sent Publius Cestius to Gaius Praetorius the treasurer, to bring to him the legion which had been hastily raised at Pontus.Quintus Particius was sent to Silesia to recruit allies.These troops were soon assembled at Comana, by order of Domitius. 35．At the same time, the messenger brought this answer from Farnasis: He has withdrawn from Cappadocia, but he has recovered Minor Armenia, which is an inheritance from his father, and according to the right of inheritance, it should belong to him. possession.In short, he was willing to leave the problems of the five kingdoms to Caesar to solve them, and he was ready to obey no matter what decision Caesar made.Cnaeus Domitius noted that, though he had withdrawn from Cappadocia, it was not of his own free will, but of necessity, since the garrison of Armenia, which adjoined his own kingdom, was farther than that of the Cappadocia is much easier.Domitius also knew that Farnacis thought he had brought all three legions with him, and now he heard that two of them had been sent to Caesar's side, which strengthened him Courage was delayed in Armenia.Domitius began to insist that he withdrew even this kingdom, saying that Cappadocia was no different from Armenia in terms of legal rights, and that even he demanded that the matter be left untouched to Caesar, It is also unreasonable. A thing can only be called intact only if it was the way it was before and it is still the way it is now.Having thus given him this answer, Domitius set out with the above-mentioned army, and marched up the highlands towards Armenia.For from Comana in Pontus there is a high, wooded ridge that reaches to Minor Armenia and forms the boundary between Cappadocia and Armenia.He saw some conveniences in taking this road, one is walking on high ground, the enemy has no possibility of surprise attack, and one side of this mountain is connected to Cappadocia, which can provide him with Lots of supplies. 36．At the same time, Farnacis sent many envoys to Domitius to discuss peace, and brought Domitius gifts worthy of a king, all of which he firmly refused.He replied to the emissary that nothing is more important than maintaining the dignity of the Romans and recovering the country for its allies.After a long and continuous journey, he arrived at Nicopolis, a town in Asia Minor situated on that plain, only at a considerable distance on either side, There are high mountains standing tall.Here, about seven miles from Nicopolis, he pitched his camp.From his camp the road passed through a narrow and rugged gorge, where Farnacis placed his chosen infantry and nearly all his cavalry in an ambush, and ordered A large number of livestock were scattered at the pass over there, and some countrymen and townspeople were asked to stay there, deliberately for others to see.This is what he planned: If Domitius entered the valley with a friendly attitude, when he saw those people and animals walking to and fro in the fields, he would only think that the people who came were his friends. , he will not suspect an ambush; on the contrary, if he does not come in a friendly manner, but enters the enemy's territory, the soldiers will definitely leave the ranks in order to snatch the spoils, and scatter around, so that they will be scattered in disorder. was annihilated. 37．While he was making these arrangements, he continued to send representatives to Domitius to talk about peace and friendship, which he believed would be easier to deceive.But on the contrary, it was precisely the hope of peace that gave Domitius reason to remain in the camp.Farnacis thus lost his chance of immediate success, and fearing his ambush would be discovered, he recalled his troops to the camp.The next day Domitius marched on, and having come nearer to Nicopolis, pitched his camp near the city.While our armies were fortifying it, Farnacis laid out his formation in the manner he had always been accustomed to.On the front, lay out a horizontal row in a single row, with three rows of supporting troops on each side of it to reinforce it; in the center, the supporting troops are also placed in the same way, leaving two gaps at the left and right ends, that is, only laying Make a single row.Domitius continued to the end of the fortifications which had begun, and placed part of his army before the ramparts. 38．The next night, Farnacis intercepted some people who sent letters to Domitius to inform about the situation in Alexandria. Knowing that Caesar was in great danger, he urgently asked Domitius Send reinforcements to Caesar as soon as possible, and let him himself advance through Syria to Alexandria.Knowing this, Farnacis believed that Domitius would leave soon, and as long as he insisted on delaying time, he would surely win.Therefore, outside the town, he thought our army rushed to attack him on the side which was the most convenient and most advantageous for fighting, and dug two straight trenches, each four feet deep, and not very far apart in the middle, so that he could take the His own troops stayed inside for a long time and did not come out to fight.He kept his troops in line between the two trenches, and the whole cavalry on either side of the trenches, for they were of no use for anything else, and they greatly outnumbered our cavalry. . 39．Domitius could not help feeling a little disturbed, not so much because of his own, but because of the great danger of Caesar.He thought that if he went back and fought for the conditions he had rejected in the past, or left suddenly without any excuse, the other party would definitely not let him leave safely.He drew his troops from the neighboring blockhouses.Set up battle formations.He placed the thirty-sixth legion on the right flank, that of Pontus on the left, and that of Theodalus in the centre.He narrowed the front of the line very narrowly, and placed the surplus battalions in the rear as backup.After the formation of the two sides was arranged in this way, they stepped forward to fight. 40．The battle orders were issued by both sides almost at the same time, followed by a confrontation, and each other advanced and retreated suddenly, and the battle was fierce.The 36th Legion attacked the king's cavalry beyond the trenches, and fought very well, advancing as far as the town walls, over the trenches, and attacking the enemy from behind.Only the Pontus army on the other flank retreated a little before the enemy, and when they tried to cross or round the trench to attack the enemy's exposed flank, they were held up by the enemy and defeated when they crossed the trench.The legions of Deodalus were even more vulnerable.Thus the King's army gained advantage on its right flank and in the center of the line, and turned against the Thirty-sixth Army.However, they bravely withstood the impact of the victors, and under the siege of a large number of enemies, they still focused on fighting.They formed a circle and retreated towards the foot of the mountain.Due to the unfavorable terrain, Farnasis was unwilling to chase there.In this way, the Pontus Army was almost wiped out, and most of Deodalus's Army was also wiped out. The Thirty-sixth Army retreated to the high ground with no more than 250 casualties.In this battle, some excellent Roman knights were also lost.Having survived this defeat, Domitius was still able to gather up the scattered remnants of his army, and pass Cappadocia by safe road into Asia Minor.